||"Self victory." According to the founder, true victory
(MASAKATSU) is the victory one achieves over oneself (AGATSU). Thus
one of the founder's "slogans" was MASAKATSU AGATSU -- "The true
victory of self-mastery."
||The word "aikido" is made up of three Japanese characters: AI
- harmony, KI - spirit, mind, or universal energy, DO - the Way. Thus
aikido is "the Way of Harmony with Universal Energy." However, AIKI
may also be interpreted as "accommodation to circumstances." This
latter interpretation is somewhat non- standard, but it avoids certain
undesirable metaphysical commitments and also epitomizes quite well
both the physical and psychological facets of aikido.
||A practitioner of aikido.
||"Aiki association." A term used to designate the organization
created by the founder for the dissemination of aikido.
||Mutual stance where UKE and NAGE each have the same foot
forward (right-right, left-left).
||"Mutual escape." An outcome of a duel where each participant
escapes harm. This corresponds to the ideal of aikido according to
which a conflict is resolved without injury to any party
||"Mutual kill." An outcome of a duel where each participant
kills the other. In classical Japanese swordmanship, practitioners
were often encouraged to enter a duel with the goal of achieving at
least an AI UCHI. The resolution to win the duel even at the cost of
one's own life was thought to aid in cultivating an attitude of
single-minded focus on the task of cutting down one's opponent. This
single-minded focus is exemplified in aikido in the technique, IKKYO,
where one enters into an attacker's range in order to effect the
||Footwork. Proper footwork is essential in aikido for
developing strong balance and for facilitating ease of movement.
||(lit. Striking the Body) Strike directed at the attacker for
purposes of unbalancing or distraction. Atemi is often vital for
bypassing or "short-circuiting" an attacker's natural responses to
aikido techniques. The first thing most people will do when they feel
their body being manipulated in an unfamiliar way is to retract their
limbs and drop their center of mass down and away from the person
performing the technique. By judicious application of atemi, it is
possible to create a "window of opportunity" in the attacker's natural
defenses, facilitating the application of an aikido technique.
|Bokken or Bokuto
||Wooden sword. Many aikido movements are derived from
traditional Japanese fencing. In advanced practice, weapons such as
the BOKKEN are used in learning subtleties of certain movements, the
relationships obtaining between armed and unarmed techniques, defenses
against weapons, and the like.
||"Martial way." The Japanese character for "BU" (martial) is
derived from characters meaning "stop" and (a weapon like a)
"halberd." In conjunction, then, "BU" may have the connotation "to
stop the halberd." In aikido, there is an assumption that the best
way to prevent violent conflict is to emphasize the cultivation of
individual character. The way (DO) of AIKI is thus equivalent to the
way of BU, taken in this sense of preventing or avoiding violence so
far as possible.
||Direct. Thus CHOKUSEN NO IRIMI = direct entry.
||"Middle position." Thus CHUDAN NO KAMAE = a stance
characterized by having one's hands/sword in a central position with
respect to one's body.
||Center. Especially, the center of one's movement or
||Black belt rank. In IAF aikido, the highest rank it is now
possible to obtain is 9th dan. There are some aikidoists who hold
ranks of 10th dan. These ranks were awarded by the founder prior to
his death, and cannot be rescinded. White belt ranks are called KYU
||Way/path. The Japanese character for "DO" is the same as the
Chinese character for Tao (as in "Taoism"). In aikiDO, the
connotation is that of a way of attaining enlightenment or a way of
improving one's character through aiki.
||Literally "place of the Way." Also "place of enlightenment."
The place where we practice aikido. Traditional etiquette prescribes
bowing in the direction of the shrine (KAMIZA) or the designated front
of the dojo (SHOMEN) whenever entering or leaving the dojo.
||The head of the dojo. A title.
|Domo Arigato Gozaimashita
||Japanese for "thank you very much." At the end of each class,
it is proper to bow and thank the instructor and those with whom
||Head of the way (currently Moriteru Ueshiba,
grandson of aikido's
founder, Morihei Ueshiba). The highest official authority in IAF
||(Inter)dependent origination (Sanskrit = pratitya samutpada).
In Buddhist philosophy, phenomena have no unchanging essences.
Rather, they originate and exist only in virtue of material and causal
conditions. Without these material and causal conditions, there would
be no phenomena. Furthermore, since the material and causal
conditions upon which all phenomena depend are continually in flux,
phenomena themselves are one and all impermanent. Since whatever is
impermanent and dependent for existence on conditions has no absolute
status (or is not absolutely real), it follows that phenomena (what
are ordinarily called "things") are have no absolute or independent
existential status, i.e., they are empty. To cultivate a cognitive
state in which the empty status of things is manifest is to realize or
attain enlightenment. The realization of enlightenment, in turn,
confers a degree of cognitive freedom and spontaneity which, among
other (and arguably more important) benefits, facilitates the
performance of martial techniques in response to rapidly changing
circumstances. (see KU)
||"Immovable mind." A state of mental equanimity or
imperturbability. The mind, in this state, is calm and undistracted
(metaphorically, therefore, "immovable"). FUDO MYO is a Buddhist
guardian deity who carries a sword in one hand (to destroy enemies of
the Buddhist doctrine), and a rope in the other (to rescue sentient
beings from the pit of delusion, or from Buddhist hell-states). He
therefore embodies the two-fold Buddhist ideal of wisdom (the sword)
and compassion (the rope). To cultivate FUDO SHIN is thus to
cultivate a mind which can accomodate itself to changing circumstances
without compromise of ethical principles.
||A formal title whose connotation is something approximating
||Sword-raising movement. This movement in found especially in
IKKYO, IRIMI-NAGE, and SHIHO-NAGE.
||Lower position. GEDAN NO KAMAE is thus a stance with the
hands or a weapon held in a lower position.
||Training costume. Either judo-style or karate-style GI are
acceptable in most DOJO, but they must be white and cotton. (No black
satin GI with embroidered dragons. Please.)
||Opposing stance (if UKE has the right foot forward, NAGE has
the left foot forward, if UKE has the left foot forward, NAGE has the
right foot forward).
||Divided skirt usually worn by black-belt ranks. In some DOJO,
the HAKAMA is also worn by women of all ranks, and in some DOJO by all
||Triangular stance. Most often aikido techniques are practiced
with UKE and NAGE in pre-determined stances. This is to facilitate
learning the techniques and certain principles of positioning with
respect to an attack. At higher levels, specific HANMI cease to be of
||Position with NAGE sitting, UKE standing. Training in HANMI
HANDACHI WAZA is a good way of practicing techniques as though with a
significantly larger/taller opponent. This type of training also
emphasizes movement from one's center of mass (HARA).
||8 directions; as in HAPPO-UNDO (8 direction exercise) or
HAPPO-GIRI (8 direction cutting with the sword). The connotation here
is really movement in all directions. In aikido, one must be prepared
to turn in any direction in an instant.
||One's center of mass, located about 2" below the navel.
Traditionally this was thought to be the location of the
spirit/mind/(source of KI). Aikido techniques should be executed as
much as possible from or through one's HARA.
|Hasso no Kamae
||"Figure-eight" stance. The figure eight does not correspond
to the arabic numeral "8", but rather to the Chinese/Japanese
character which looks more like the roof of a house. In HASSO NO
KAMAE, the sword is held up beside one's head, so that the elbows
spread down and out from the sword in a pattern resembling this
||Varied technique. Especially beginning one technique and
changing to another in mid-execution. Ex. beginning IKKYO but
changing to IRIMI-NAGE.
||A term used to refer to the central dojo of an organization.
Thus this usually designates Aikido World Headquarters. (see
||(lit. "Entering the Body") Entering movement. Many aikidoists
think that the IRIMI movement expresses the very essence of aikido.
The idea behind IRIMI is to place oneself in relation to an attacker
in such a way that the attacker is unable to continue to attack
effectively, and in such a way that one is able to control effectively
the attacker's balance. (See SHIKAKU).
||A (shinto) shrine. There is an AIKI JINJA located in Iwama,
Ibaraki prefecture, Japan.
||Free-style practice of techniques. This usually involves more
than one attacker who may attack NAGE in any way desired.
||Wooden staff about 4'-5' in length. The JO originated as a
walking stick. It is unclear how it became incorporated into aikido.
Many JO movements come from traditional Japanese spear- fighting,
others may have come from jo-jutsu, but many seem to have been
innovated by the founder. The JO is usually used in advanced
||Upper position. JODAN NO KAMAE is thus a stance with the
hands or a weapon held in a high position.
||"Victory at the speed of sunlight." According to the founder,
when one has acheived total self-mastery (Agatsu) and perfect accord
with the fundamental principles governing the universe (especially
principles covering ethical interaction), one will have the power of
the entire universe at one's disposal, there no longer being any real
difference between oneself and the universe. At this stage of
spiritual advancement, victory is instantaneous. The very intention
of an attacker to perpetrate an act of violence breaks harmony with
the fundamental principles of the universe, and no one can compete
successfully against such principles. Also, the expression of the
fundamental principles of the universe in human life is love (Ai), and
love, according to the founder, has no enemies. Having no enemies,
one has no need to fight, and thus always emerges victorious. (see
Agatsu and Masakatsu)
||Technique reversal. (UKE becomes NAGE and vice- versa). This
is usually a very advanced form of practice. KAESHI WAZA practice
helps to instill a sensitivity to shifts in resistance or direction in
the movements of one's partner. Training so as to anticipate and
prevent the application of KAESHI WAZA against one's own techniques
greatly sharpens aikido skills.
||A title. The founder of aikido (i.e., Morihei Ueshiba).
||A posture or stance either with or without a weapon. KAMAE
may also connote proper distance (MA AI) with respect to one's
partner. Although "KAMAE" generally refers to a physical stance,
there is an important prallel in aikido between one's physical and
one's psychological bearing. Adopting a strong physical stance helps
to promote the correlative adoption of a strong psychological
attitude. It is important to try so far as possible to maintain a
positive and strong mental bearing in aikido.
||A divinity, living force, or spirit. According to SHINTO, the
natural world is full of KAMI, which are often sensitive or responsive
to the actions of human beings.
||A small shrine, especially in an aikido, generally located the
the front of the dojo, and often housing a picture of the founder, or
some calligraphy. One generally bows in the direction of the KAMIZA
when entering or leaving the dojo, or the mat.
||Joint manipulation techniques.
||A "form" or prescribed pattern of movement, especially with
the JO in aikido. (But also "shoulder.")
||"Hold-down" (pinning) techniques.
||What is vulgarly called a "samurai sword."
||"The sword that saves life." As Japanese swordsmanship became
more and more influenced by Buddhism (especially Zen Buddhism) and
Taoism, practitioners became increasingly interested in incorporating
ethical principles into their discipline. The consumate master of
sworsmanship, according to some such practitioners, should be able not
only to use the sword to kill, but also to save life. The concept of
KATSU JIN KEN found some explicit application in the development of
techniques which would use non-cutting parts of the sword to strike or
control one's opponent, rather than to kill him/her. The influence of
some of these techniques can sometimes be seen in aikido. Other
techniques were developed by which an unarmed person (or a person
unwilling to draw a weapon) could disarm an attacker. These
techniques are frequently practiced in aikido. (see SETSU NIN TO)
||Training. The only secret to success in aikido.
||Enlightenment. (see MOKUSO and SATORI)
||Mind. Spirit. Energy. Vital-force. Intention. (Chinese = chi)
For many Aikidoka, the primary goal of training in aikido is to learn
how to "extend" KI, or to learn how to control or redirect the KI of
others. There are both "realist" and anti-realist interpretations of
KI. The KI-realist takes KI to be, literally, a kind of "stuff,"
"energy," or life-force which flows within the body. Developing or
increasing one's own KI, according to the KI- realist, thus confers
upon the aikidoka greater power and control over his/her own body, and
may also have the added benefits of improved health and
longevity. According to the KI-anti-realist, KI is a concept which
covers a wide range of psycho-physical phenomena, but which does not
denote any objectively existing "energy" or "stuff." The
KI-anti-realist believes, for example, that to "extend KI" is just to
adopt a certain kind of positive psychological disposition and to
correlate that psychological dispositon with just the right
combination of balance, relaxation, and judicious application of
physical force. Since the description "extend KI" is somewhat more
manageable, the concept of KI has a class of well-defined uses for the
KI-anti-realist, but does not carry with it any ontological
commitments beyond the scope of mainstream scientific theories.
||A shout delivered for the purpose of focussing all of one's
energy into a single movement. Even when audible KIAI are absent, one
should try to preserve the feeling of KIAI at certain crucial points
within aikido techniques.
||(Something which is) fundamental. There are often many
seemingly very different ways of performing the same technique in
aikido. To see beneath the surface features of the technique and
grasp the core common is to comprehend the KIHON.
||KI NO MUSUBI = Literally "knotting/tying-up KI". The
act/process of matching one's partner's movement/intention at its
inception, and maintaining a connection to one's partner throughout
the application of an aikido technique. Proper KI MUSUBI requires a
mind that is clear, flexible, and attentive. (see SETSUZOKU)
||A student junior to oneself.
||"Heart or mind." Japanese folk psychology does not
distinguish clearly between the seat of intellect and the seat of
emotion as does Western folk psychology.
||Breath. Part of aikido is the development of "KOKYU RYOKU",
or "breath power." This is the coordination of breath with movement.
A prosaic example: When lifting a heavy object, it is generally easier
when breathing out. Also breath control may facilitate greater
concentration and the elimination of stress. In many traditional
forms of meditation, focus on the breath is used as a method for
developing heightened concentration or mental equanimity. This is
also the case in aikido. A number of exercises in aikido are called
"KOKYU HO," or "breath exercises." These exercises are meant to help
one develop KOKYU RYOKU.
||A practice of intoning various sounds (phonetic components of
the Japanese language) for the purpose of producing mystical states.
The founder of aikido was greatly interested in Shinto and Neo-shinto
mystical practices, and he incorporated a number of them into his
personal aikido practice.
||Emptiness. According to Buddhism, the fundamental character
of things is absence (or emptiness) of individual unchanging essences.
The realization of the essencelessness of things is what permits the
cultivation of psychological non-attachment, and thus cognitive
equanimity. The direct realization of (or experience of insight into)
emptiness is enlightenment. This shows up in aikido in the ideal of
developing a state of cognitive openness, permiting one to respond
immediately and intuitively to changing circumstances (see
||JO matching exercise (partner practice).
||Sword matching exercise (partner practice).
||The principle of destroying one's partner's balance. In
aikido, a technique cannot be properly applied unless one first
unbalances one's partner. To achieve proper KUZUSHI, in aikido, one
should rely primarily on position and timing, rather than merely on
||White belt rank. (Or any rank below SHODAN)
||Proper distancing or timing with respect to one's partner.
Since aikido techniques always vary according to circumstances, it is
important to understand how differences in initial position affect the
timing and application of techniques.
||Front. Thus MAE UKEMI = "forward fall/roll".
||"True victory." (see AGATSU and KACHIHAYABI)
||Ritual purification. Aikido training may be looked upon as a
means of purifying oneself; eliminating defiling characteristics from
one's mind or personality. Although there are some specific exercises
for MISOGI practice, such as breathing exercises, in point of fact,
every aspect of aikido training may be looked upon as MISOGI. This,
however, is a matter of one's attitude or approach to training, rather
than an objective feature of the training itself.
||Meditation. Practice often begins or ends with a brief period
of meditation. The purpose of meditation is to clear one's mind and
to develop cognitive equanimity. Perhaps more importantly, meditation
is an opportunity to become aware of conditioned patterns of thought
and behavior so that such patterns can be modified, eliminated or more
efficiently put to use. In addition, meditation may occasion
experiences of insight into various aspects of aikido (or, if one
accepts certain buddhist claims, into the very structure of reality).
Ideally, the sort of cognitive awareness and focus that one cultivates
in meditation should carry over into the rest of one's practice, so
that the distinction between the "meditative mind" and the "normal
||Students without black-belt ranking.
||Literally "no mind". A state of cognitive awareness
characterized by the absence of discursive thought. A state of mind
in which the mind acts/reacts without hypostatization of concepts.
MUSHIN is often erroneously taken to be a state of mere spontaneity.
Although spontaneity is a feature of MUSHIN, it is not
straightforwardly identical with it. It might be said that when in a
state of MUSHIN, one is free to use concepts and distinctions without
being used by them.
||Flowing. One goal of aikido practice is to learn not to
oppose physical force with physical force. Rather, one strives to
flow along with physical force, redirecting it to one's
||"The front," thus, a class of movements in aikido in which
NAGE enters in front of UKE.
||One of the so-called "new-religions" of Japan. OMOTOKYO is a
syncretic amalgam of Shintoism, Neo-Shinto mysticism, Christianity,
and Japanese folk religion. The founder of aikido was a devotee of
OMOTOKYO, and incorporated some elements from it into his aikido
practice. The founder insisted, however, that one need not be a
devotee of OMOTOKYO in order to study aikido or to comprehend aikido's
||"I welcome you to train with me," or literally, "I make a
request." This is said to one's partner when initiating
||Literally, "Great Teacher," i.e., Morihei Ueshiba, the founder
||Free-style "all-out" training. Sometimes used as a synonym
for JIYU WAZA. Although aikido techniques are usually practiced with
a single partner, it is important to keep in mind the possibility that
one may be attacked by multiple aggressors. Many of the body
movements of aikido (TAI SABAKI) are meant to facilitate defense
against multiple attackers.
||Ettiquette. Observance of proper ettiquette at all times (but
especially observance of proper DOJO ettiquette) is as much a part of
one's training as the practice of techniques. Observation of
ettiquette indicates one's sincerety, one's willingness to learn, and
one's recognition of the rights and interests of others.
||Enlightenment. In Buddhism, enlightenment is characterized by
a direct realization or apprehension of the absence of unchanging
essences behind phenomena. Rather, phenomena are seen to be empty of
such essences -- phenomena exist in thoroughgoing interdependence
(ENGI). As characterized by the founder of aikido, enlightenment
consists in realizing a fundamental unity between oneself and the
(principles governing) the universe. The most important ethical
principle the aikidoist should gain insight into is that one should
cultivate a spirit of loving protection for all things. (see KU and
||Teacher. It is usually considered proper to address the
instructor during practice as "Sensei" rather than by his/her name.
If the instructor is a permanent instructor for one's DOJO or for an
organization, it is proper to address him/her as "Sensei" off the mat
||Sitting on one's knees. Sitting this way requires
acclimatization, but provides both a stable base and greater ease of
movement than sitting cross-legged.
||A student senior to oneself.
|Satsu Nin To
||"The sword that kills." Although this would seem to indicate
a purely negative concept, there is, in fact, a positive connotation
to this term. Apart from the common assumption that killing may
sometimes be a "necessary evil" which may serve to prevent an even
greater evil, the concept of killing has a wide variety of
metaphorical applications. One may, for example, strive to "kill"
such harmful character traits as ignorance, selfishness, or
(excessive) competitiveness. Some MISOGI sword exercises in aikido,
for example, involve imagining that each cut of the sword destroys
some negative aspect of one's personality. In this way, SETSU NIN TO
and KATSU JIN KEN coalesce.
||Connection. Aikido techniques are generally rendered more
efficient by preserving a connection between one's center of mass
(HARA) and the outer limits of the movement, or between one's own
center of mass and that of one's partner. Also, SETSUZOKU may connote
fluidity and continuity in technique. On a psychological level,
SETSUZOKU may connote the relationship of action-response that exists
between oneself and one's partner, such that successful performance of
aikido techniques depends crucially upon timing one's own actions and
responses to accord with those of one's partner.
||A formal title meaning, approximately, "instructor."
||A formal title meaning, approximately, "master instructor." A
"teacher of teachers."
||Literally "dead angle." A position relative to one's partner
where it is difficult for him/her to (continue to) attack, and from
which it is relatively easy to control one's partner's balance and
movement. The first phase of an aikido technique is often to
||Samurai walking ("knee walking"). Shikko is very important
for developing a strong awareness of one's center of mass (HARA). It
also develops strength in one's hips and legs.
||Lit. "Duel with live swords." This expresses the attitude one
should have about aikido training, i.e., one should treat the practice
session as though it were, in some respects, a life-or-death duel with
live swords. In particular, one's attention during aikido training
should be single-mindedly focussed on aikido, just as, during a
life-or-death duel, one's attention is entirely focussed on the
||"Thusness" or "suchness." A term commonly used in Buddhist
philosophy (and especially in Zen Buddhism) to denote the character of
things as they are experienced without filtering the experiences
through an overt conceptual framework. There is some question whether
"pure" uninterpreted experience (independent of all
conceptualization/categorization) is possible given the
neurological/cognitive makeup of human beings. However, SHINNYO can
also be taken to signify experience of things as empty of individual
essences (see "KU").
||"The way of the gods." The indigenous religion of Japan. The
founder of aikido was deeply influenced by OMOTOKYO, a religion
largely grounded in SHINTO mysticism. (see KAMI)
||First degree black belt.
||Front or top of head. Also the designated front of a
||"Outside." Thus, a class of aikido movements executed,
especially, outside the attacker's arm(s). (see UCHI)
||Basic JO or BOKKEN practice in striking and thrusting.
||Techniques performed without allowing the attacker to complete
a grab or to initiate a strike. Ideally, one should be sensitive
enough to the posture and movements of an attacker (or would-be
attacker) that the attack is neutralized before it is fully executed.
A great deal of both physical and cognitive training is required in
order to attain this ideal.
||An opening or gap where one is vulnerable to attack or
application of a technique, or where one's technique is otherwise
flawed. SUKI may be either physical or psychological. One goal of
training is to be sensitive to SUKI within one's own movement or
position, as well as to detect SUKI in the movement or position of
one's partner. Ideally, a master of aikido will have developed
his/her skill to such an extent that he/she no longer has any true
||Literally "to throw-away the body." The attitude of
abandoning oneself to the execution of a technique (in judo, a class
of techniques where one sacrifices one's own balance/position in order
to throw one's partner). (See AI UCHI).
||Techniques executed with both UKE and NAGE in a seated
position. These techniques have their historical origin (in part) in
the practice of requiring all samurai to sit and move about on their
knees while in the presence of a DAIMYO (feudal lord). In theory,
this made it more difficult for anyone to attack the DAIMYO. But this
was also a position in which one received guests (not all of whom were
always trustworthy). In contemporary aikido, SUWARI WAZA is important
for learning to use one's hips and legs.
||A type of Japanese sword (thus TACHI-TORI = sword-taking).
(Also "standing position").
||"Body arts," i.e., unarmed practice.
|Tai no henko
||TAI NO TENKAN = Basic blending practice involving turning 180
||A "slogan" of the founder's meaning "infinitely generative
martial art of aiki." Thus, a synonym for aikido. The scope of
aikido is not limited only to the standard, named techniques one
studies regularly in practice. Rather, these standard techniques
serve as repositories of more fundamental principles (KIHON). Once
one has internalized the KIHON, it is possible to generate a virtually
infinite variety of new aikido techniques in accordance with novel
||Training against multiple attackers, usually from grabbing
||"Hand sword", i.e. the edge of the hand. Many aikido
movements emphasize extension and alignment "through" one's tegatana.
Also, there are important similarities obtaining between aikido sword
techniques, and the principles of tegatana application.
||Turning movement, esp. turning the body 180 degrees. (see TAI
||A movement where NAGE retreats 45 degrees away from the attack
(esp. to UKE's open side).
||A punch or thrust (esp. an attack to the midsection).
||"Inside." A class of techniques where NAGE moves, especially,
inside (under) the attacker's arm(s). (but also a strike, e.g., SHOMEN
||A live-in student. A student who lives in a dojo and devotes
him/herself both to training and to the maintenence of the dojo (and
sometimes to personal service to the SENSEI of the dojo).
||The late son of the founder of aikido. Second aikido
||The founder of aikido. (see O-SENSEI and KAISO).
||The grandson of the founder and current DOSHU at HOMBU
||Person being thrown (receiving the technique). At high levels
of practice, the distinction between UKE and NAGE becomes blurred. In
part, this is because it becomes unclear who initiates the technique,
and also because, from a certain perspective, UKE and NAGE are
||Literally "receiving [with/through] the body," thus, the art
of falling in response to a technique. MAE UKEMI are front
roll-falls, USHIRO UKEMI are back roll-falls. Ideally, one should be
able to execute UKEMI from any position and in any direction. The
development of proper ukemi skills is just as important as the
development of throwing skills and is no less deserving of attention
and effort. In the course of practicing UKEMI, one has the
opportunity to monitor the way one is being moved so as to gain a
clearer understanding of the principles of aikido techniques. Just as
standard aikido techniques provide strategies for defending against
physical attacks, so does UKEMI practice provide strategies for
defending against falling (or even against the application of an
aikido or aikido-like technique!).
||"Rear." A class of aikido techniques executed by moving
behind the attacker and turning. Sometimes URA techniques are called
TENKAN (turning) techniques.
||Backwards or behind, as in USHIRO UKEMI or falling
||Techniques. Although in aikido we have to practice specific
techniques, aikido as it might manifest itself in self-defense may not
resemble any particular, standard aikido technique. This is because
aikido techniques encode strategies and types of movement which are
modified in accordance with changing conditions. (see KIHON)
||Taking away ???, e.g. TANTO-TORI (knife-taking).
||Side of the head.
||Black belt holder (any rank).
||Lit. "remaining mind/heart." Even after an aikido technique
has been completed, one should remain in a balanced and aware state.
ZANSHIN thus connotes "following through" in a technique, as well as
preservation of one's awareness so that one is prepared to respond to
||A school or division of Buddhism characterized by techniques
designed to produce enlightenment. In particular, Zen emphasizes
various sorts of meditative practices, which are supposed to lead the
practitioner to a direct insight into the fundamental character of
reality (see KU and MOKUSO).
||Sandals worn off the mat to help keep the mat clean!