Daniel Moore wrote:
From all what I have read and been told, Budo is interlinked with MA especially Japanese ones. The only exceptions being where the MA becomes a sport (like some forms of karate and Olympic taekwondo), where the aim isn't to learn how to defend against an assault, but to score points by simulating combat but in an unrealistic way.
This is the common conception. Others occur. See:
The Journal of Asian Martial Arts, Vol. 2:4 -- Hurst, G.C. "From heiho to bugei: The emergence of the martial arts in Tokugawa Japan"
IIRC, Hurst, Medeival Japan Historian, U of Penn., finishes the article dsiputing the exclusion of sportive forms from "Budo."
Also, sine qua non, UCLA's William Bodiford on Religion and Spirituality in the Martial arts of the world : an encyclopedia / edited by Thomas A. Green.
Bodiford situates the evolution of "DO" in the middle of, and as an expression of, ultranationalist militarism in 1920's Japan.
Also, see http://www.aikiweb.com/forums/showthread.php?t=4217
, especially the latter exchanges with Chris Li.