I think there is no one book that will do what you want. The closest that comes to it is the two-volume encyclopedia of the martial arts edited by Thomas Green and Joe Svinth.
If you buy this--and it is not cheap, you will get a very good overview of martial arts per se, not just the Japanese variety.
Otherwise, the various volumes written or edited by Don Draeger, Alex Bennett, Diane Skoss, and Ellis Amdur will enable you to get some bearings and even reach some kind of critical stance.
I'm looking to get a book about budo: its history and development in Japan; what it is - and has been - defined as...just a general kind of, good overview of it, really.
So does anyone have any knowledge of such books?