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  #126  
Old 09-12-2008, 10:25 AM
Peter A Goldsbury AikiWeb Forums Contributing Member
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Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

INTERLUDE
IV: Iemoto and Iwama

An earlier column (Column 5) finished with O Sensei retreating to his Aiki-en (Aiki Farm) in Iwama, leaving his son Kisshomaru in charge of the Tokyo dojo. There are a number of problems relating to Morihei Ueshiba's...
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Last edited by akiy : 10-20-2008 at 03:21 PM.
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Old 09-26-2008, 04:51 PM   #125
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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George S. Ledyard wrote: View Post
Go no sen, sen no sen, sen sen no sen, etc... Weapons work is by far the best way to gain some understanding of the differences between these concepts. Yet, O-Sensei was quoted repeatedly as saying that it Aikido technique wasn't about timing. So, I think the progression in ones training should be to first understand the various manifestations of timing as used traditionally. We simply use the forms given to us by Saotome Sensei as a tool and investigate how changing the timing or initiative changes how everything works. ... So what happens to the whole notion of reaction time when you introduce the concept of "already".
He said aikido was jujido [十字道] . I interpret that, from my experience, in precisely 90 degree terms -- spatial and temporal.

Spatially perpendicular inputs encounter "no resistance" (his description) from the directed attacking energy. In terms of timing, it is not absolute time but rhythm -- 90 degree phase difference between the attacking peak and the responding peak -- early or late -- positive or negative. That disrupts and shifts in both time and space the combined system's peak energy with what is actually, technically, described as "harmonic" resonance.

In my practice, I have a very capable aikido partner also who is ranked in MJER. We have worked on Saotome's weapons template for many years now, whereas I came from a background in Saito's. And the difference between the "Holy crap! Where did that come from?!" moments in the kumitachi that we both know like the back of our hands, and the "Yeah. Alright. Do it again." moments, is in this precise rhythm, whether ahead or behind. I have counted it out in beats immediately after a really well executed engagement and it always fits a 1::4 synchopation to a critical transition in one of several types in a given movement, as seen below. It is most devastating at a particular absolute cadence that fits with furitama.

Every action has four objective phases and five transitions (Musashi, anyone?):

1) active accelerating mode
2) free momentum mode,
3) active deceleration mode and
4) inertial recovery to neutral.

The five objective transitions are:

A) from zero motion to positive aceleration in mode 1;
B) from peak acceleration to free momentum in mode 2;
C) from free motion to decelerating in mode 3,
D) from peak (trough, really) active deceleration to passive inertial recovery in mode 4
E) from inertial recovery to zero motion

For purposes of reference, clever sequencing of mode 3 through the body and limbs results in "mass transfer" at impact (where the inertia used to attain "zero" recovery in phase 4 is the body of the target at impact. If the strike misses - the striker's body is actually moving back just before the time of impact, not travelling forward behind it. (Some call this "striking without committing weight.")

You can play with the 1::4 syncopation at any point in these progressions, and by doing so "early" or "late." I find this helpful to structure practice of waza from different points in the progression. You can also break down each subsidiary interaction of any waza and further explore that subset of the relative rhythm in the same sequence. This allows me to tease many waza apart into these sorts of examinations of movement in isolation, in spatial and temporal terms. It breaks down categories and assumptions that just because "this" movement leads to "that" movement in "this waza" does not mean that "this" movement necessarily leads to "that" movement, or necessarily to any given waza we know or may have ever done as such. The principle and the perception are brought to the forefront.

The modes and transitions are actually a cycle. There is a further transition from the "inward" zero attained at E and the "outward" zero from which A begins. This is the highest level of action -- and unlike the others it is "subjective" -- Musashi's "Void, " I believe. However, we can act on it somehow, and that means it has some connecting component that is achieved through much practice.

Your wife, I suggest, was in this space of the rhythm between A and E (with her intention outward, just before A ) as soon as you fell into E (with your intention inward, toward your big toe).

In respect of of your earlier comment, I contend (and I am still working out) that we do have physical concepts such as these that we may map onto those things that Morihei Ueshiba said, did and and understood in much more "mythical" terms or merely in native Japanese concepts. That is my project.

As to absolute cadence, there are fundamental rhythms that the body betrays, to senses quicker than eyesight. Light may be faster than vibration or sound, but the vibratory senses -- tactile and auditory -- are much actually faster than sight in processing in the brain -- that is not an opinion but an empirical fact. Attention to visual cues just bogs down the processor. "Thousand-yard-stare" diminishes the precision of the visual input -- in favor of other perceptions. If I look at my partner I cannot feel the tremor of her bokken -- I still don't recall feeling it as such, but then I move all of a sudden -- and so I know I did.

Furitama/ funetori etc. are largely about learning the fundamental frequency -- the rhythm -- of the body, from which such actions are gauged -- not by conscious sight -- but an instinctive, fundamental perception of rhythm -- even in a single beat of it -- a rhythm that all human bodies inevitably share by nature and structure.

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George S. Ledyard wrote: View Post
Aikido, in my opinion, is really a weapons based system in terms of all of its logic. If you do not train as if both of you have a weapon(s) then most of what we do doesn't actually make much sense. It certainly doesn't apply in the empty hand sport context very well.... Weapons training doesn't have to be on the par with the true weapons styles of the koryu to be able to teach these lessons but the quality of the weapons training needs to be better than it generally is. Most folks I encounter doing weapons work in Aikido are not training in a way that will reveal anything useful at all; they are blissfully unaware of these issues.
Amen and amen. Weapons display good, bad and indifferent rhythms more broadly.

Cordially,

Erick Mead
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Old 09-27-2008, 07:43 AM   #126
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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Hi Professor Goldsbury,

Could you please say more about this idea:

"The [Japanese] cultural context is there, however, as a matter of fact: it can be studied and mastered by those who want to do. Those who do not will then need to solve the contradictions posed by the essentially Japanese nature of aikido. Judo has had this problem, also kendo and karate. I know from lengthy conversations with Doshu that the Aikikai do not want aikido to go in this direction, which they fear is likely if aikido is separated unduly from its Japanese cultural context."
PAG. Well, take the example of sumo, which reflects the issues confronting aikido in a much more graphic way. Sumo has the best of both worlds. It is a sport (in that it has competitions), but it also has the spiritual superstructure (sumo is a spiritual art, dedicated to spiritual aims, and so is not really about winning and losing). So, it is ruthlessly competitive, but is also a hallowed Japanese budo (and with none of the angst about the supposed value of 'internal' training).
Sumo is popularly regarded as Japan's 'national' sport and so the cultural context is right there, and has to be studied and mastered by Japanese and non-Japanese alike. Non-Japanese are thought to be 'intruders' in something they are thought not capable of fully understanding. So people were very happy when the Japanese Hakuho became a yokozuna, for the proper cultural balance was thought to be restored, especially because the Mongolian Asashoryu was thought to be lacking in the prized quality of hinkaku 品格 (= 'dignity').The sumo world is regularly rocked by scandals and the President of the Association recently resigned because two young Russians were suspected of taking mild drugs. He was not involved, but resigned to 'take responsibility'. This is a common Japanese device of having a scapegoat take on the supposed sins of kohai, if it all becomes public. Sins may be sins, but they become 'shame' when they become public--and the shame, like pollution, has to be removed in a ritual fashion.
Unlike sumo, aikido does not have competitions, so there is no clear and objective way of determining who is thought to have the essential skills and 'dignity' who is not. However, there is still the same cultural component as in sumo and so the Japanese claim to be the arbiters of true quality in the art. Thus Doshu is thought to embody the essence of aikido and the transmission of leadership of the art has been effected through the iemoto system, as I suggested in Column 10.

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David Henderson wrote: View Post
Are there examples of these contradictions and how they posed problems for judo, kendo, and karate?
PAG. Judo became a sport, appearing at the Olympics and many Japanese wrung their hands at this, arguing that the true 'essence' of judo was thus lost. The International Judo Federation introduced blue training suits and the Japanese felt that this was a direct affront, because they felt that they had exclusive control of the cultural dimensions of the art. There is a traditional Japanese association of white with purity and judo, as a Japanese budo, is essentially pure. Thus, all taxi and bus drivers here wear white gloves. However, the IJF wanted a better way of distinguishing between contestants at Olympic judo contests. All the Japanese could do was wring their hands, lament the loss of the national 'essence', and vow to remain 'pure'.

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And may I address you as Peter?
PAG. You can address me how you like, so long as it conforms to Aikiweb rules.

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David Henderson wrote: View Post
Thanks in advance for your thoughts.

David
Thank you, also, for raising an interesting issue.

PAG

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Old 09-27-2008, 09:59 AM   #127
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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Hi Chuck,

By the way, how's the state of the bod? You've had at least one operation since I last talked to you, no?

- George
Thanks for your concern George. The surgery you're referring to will take place on the 9th of next month. I've met the surgeon, anesthesiologist, etc. (the "pros from Dover") and I feel like I'm in good hands, so I'm just gonna relax and let them do their job. Hopefully the hip replacement will happen as soon as possible after decent recovery. I'm really looking forward to it!

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Old 09-28-2008, 03:37 AM   #128
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

Goldsbury sensei,
No disrespect intended but the Grand Sumo homepage lists Yokozuna Hakuho as being born in Mongolia. I love sumo and was in Osaka in 2006 when Hakuho defeated Asashoryu for the first time. I could be wrong but I think he is Mongolian. Although if I am right it doesn't detract from your point. Thank you again for your wonderful columns.

Brad Darr

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Old 09-28-2008, 07:44 AM   #129
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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Goldsbury sensei,
No disrespect intended but the Grand Sumo homepage lists Yokozuna Hakuho as being born in Mongolia. I love sumo and was in Osaka in 2006 when Hakuho defeated Asashoryu for the first time. I could be wrong but I think he is Mongolian. Although if I am right it doesn't detract from your point. Thank you again for your wonderful columns.

Brad Darr
Hello Brad,

Yes. You are right. I was at dinner this evening and all my Japanese friends stated that Hakuho (who has just won the championship) is Mongolian. His wife is Japanese.

I think that Takamiyama and Akebono demonstrated the mysterious virtue of hinkaku best for the Japanese. Konishiki and Asashoryu are thought to have demonstrated it the worst, which is why the Sumo Kyokai yearn for a Japanese yokozuna who can display hinkaku as it should be displayed. So the Japanese can then reaffirm their faith in the 'traditional' Japanese virtues.

Best wishes,

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Old 09-28-2008, 08:22 AM   #130
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

Or they could adopt appearing in rap videos, getting tooled in public MMA venues, and owing "certain entities" large sums of money into "traditional" Japanese values.

Come to think of it, it's probably just the "un-managed" *public* part that is non-traditional isn't it? After all . . . one must maintain the proper framing of one's . . . barbarism, hedonism, gluttony, etc. . . . if one isn't to be perceived as barbaric, hedonistic, gluttonous, etc.

Allen

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Old 09-28-2008, 08:46 AM   #131
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

. . . which reminds me of a little "mantra" I used to use as a reminder (not in an Aikido context that I recall thankfully), and which may have direct pertinence to this column:

"Form over content, form over content ,form over content . . . "

or its justifying partner:

"Form IS the content, form IS the content, form IS the content, . . . "

In my most paternal and condescending tone: "Peter perhaps you can use these little mantra to help quell the internal barking of the Western Dog in you that doesn't heel to all "traditional" Japanese values."

(Gosh, it's early Sunday morning over here. Normally I've been drinking wine when I write things I'll regret later . . . what kind of day am I about to have?!?! )

Kindly,
Allen

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Old 09-28-2008, 12:58 PM   #132
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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In the column I have mentioned the discussion by John Stevens on pp.65 & 66 of Invincible Warrior. However, the items in his bibliography give nothing new about Ueshiba's distress about the war (from 1937 onwards), nor is there any indication of what "has recently come to light", as Stevens puts it.
Speaking of Stevens. He has a paragraph in Abundant Peace about Ueshiba's move to Iwama. In one paragraph Stevens talks about Ueshiba may having been a patriot but not a fanatic. The next paragraph is below.

Quote:
John Stevens wrote:
Also, after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Morihei quietly contacted knowledgeable acquaintances to learn all he could about Japan's adversary; he was told candidly by some that there was no hope of Japan's winning a prolonged conflict with that inexhaustibly rich nation.

Made physically and emotionally ill by the carnage, Morihei, pleading poor health and the desire to preserve the true way of Aiki at all costs, resigned all his positions, entrusted the operation of the dojo to his son and disciples, and moved to a farm in Iwama, about a hundred miles north of Tokyo. In his later years, Morihei intimated that his abrupt move to Iwama was at divine command.
Stevens also states that Morihei had been buying land in Iwama since 1935 and had about 17 acres when he moved there.

I post this because you had been talking about it in this article and I had just come across reading it in the book.

Mark
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Old 09-28-2008, 07:48 PM   #133
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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Speaking of Stevens. He has a paragraph in Abundant Peace about Ueshiba's move to Iwama. In one paragraph Stevens talks about Ueshiba may having been a patriot but not a fanatic. The next paragraph is below.

Stevens also states that Morihei had been buying land in Iwama since 1935 and had about 17 acres when he moved there.

I post this because you had been talking about it in this article and I had just come across reading it in the book.

Mark
Yes, I have Abundant Peace, but I also have Invincible Warrior, so I can see exactly how Stevens revised the earlier book. I also have all the written source material that Stevens used. Of course, I do not have the extensive interviews he carried out with O Sensei's disciples. (However, I have also been doing the same thing. )

The only areas I have not yet been able to search are the massive records stored in the Aikikai Hombu and the archives of the Japanese Army & Navy, for any evidence concerning Morihei Ueshiba's teaching assignments at the various military schools. I am certain that Stevens has not searched these areas either. Fumiaki Shishida has published a book about budo education in Manchuria at the Kenkoku University and discusses aiki-budo in Chapter 8. Of course, the book is written in Japanese.

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Old 09-29-2008, 06:22 AM   #134
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
Yes, I have Abundant Peace, but I also have Invincible Warrior, so I can see exactly how Stevens revised the earlier book. I also have all the written source material that Stevens used. Of course, I do not have the extensive interviews he carried out with O Sensei's disciples. (However, I have also been doing the same thing. )

The only areas I have not yet been able to search are the massive records stored in the Aikikai Hombu and the archives of the Japanese Army & Navy, for any evidence concerning Morihei Ueshiba's teaching assignments at the various military schools. I am certain that Stevens has not searched these areas either. Fumiaki Shishida has published a book about budo education in Manchuria at the Kenkoku University and discusses aiki-budo in Chapter 8. Of course, the book is written in Japanese.
I knew you had the books. I'm missing the Invincible Warrior, so I can't compare the revisions. I still haven't finished rereading Abundant Peace. It would have been nice to see where Stevens found his information.

Speaking of ... just how massive are the records at the Aikikai Hombu?

Thank you,
Mark
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Old 09-29-2008, 08:02 AM   #135
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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The only areas I have not yet been able to search are the massive records stored in the Aikikai Hombu and the archives of the Japanese Army & Navy, for any evidence concerning Morihei Ueshiba's teaching assignments at the various military schools.
Hi Peter
I just thought it worthy of amplification to reiterate that Ueshiba's teaching assginments to the military never involved aikido.
a) He was introduced directly to officers, and / or was suggested by them due to one connecting figure. Takeda.
b) He was actively teaching Daito ryu for most of the period, and then slowly changed his direction.

Since the hanko of hundreds, if not thousands of officers from all branches were entered in Takeda's eimoroku, both the "who" (Because of Takeda's prior and concurrent teaching) and "what" (he was teaching Takeda's art of Daito ryu) seems pretty clear.

Were one to be interested in speculating one might speculate as to whether the military would have been interested or retained interest in what eventually became "aikido." And juxtapose that with an interesting development within the Japanese Military and Police departments who had a decades long solid and proven connection to Daito ryu. It was once noted to Stan, that if you were a Cop or Military recruite you were learning DR. It was that widespread.
What happened?
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Old 09-29-2008, 08:56 AM   #136
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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Hi Peter
I just thought it worthy of amplification to reiterate that Ueshiba's teaching assginments to the military never involved aikido.
a) He was introduced directly to officers, and / or was suggested by them due to one connecting figure. Takeda.
b) He was actively teaching Daito ryu for most of the period, and then slowly changed his direction.
PAG. Fumiaki Shishida clearly believes that Ueshiba was teaching 'Aiki-budo' when he visited Kenkoku University in Manchuria in 1942.

Quote:
Dan Harden wrote: View Post
Since the hanko of hundreds, if not thousands of officers from all branches were entered in Takeda's eimoroku, both the "who" (Because of Takeda's prior and concurrent teaching) and "what" (he was teaching Takeda's art of Daito ryu) seems pretty clear.
PAG. The issue for me would be how many officers practising under Ueshiba at the military schools and at the Kobukan after 1936 would be entered in Takeda's enrollment book.

Best,

PAG

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Old 09-29-2008, 09:42 AM   #137
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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PAG. Fumiaki Shishida clearly believes that Ueshiba was teaching 'Aiki-budo' when he visited Kenkoku University in Manchuria in 1942.
Hi Peter
Well, we can agree on that. And I would say his gradual changing was even earlier than that. That's why I said this
Quote:
b) He was actively teaching Daito ryu for most of the period, and then slowly changed his direction.
I think the thrust of my points is without controversy.
That is that, regardless of the gradual change it was stupifyingly obvious that it was none-the-less Daito ryu to anyone who had ever seen that art. And of further note, was identified as such by any person who was exposed to it or had seen it. As an aside, I think its worth considering the comment as to why that Budo committee suggested the supposed name aiki-do. In fact they never did. What they did was to suggest a "category" to disply the art under as it was clearly different than the koryu jujutsu displayed. Ueshiba happened to like the category title and adopted it as the arts name and kept it.
Quote:
PAG. The issue for me would be how many officers practicing under Ueshiba at the military schools and at the Kobukan after 1936 would be entered in Takeda's enrollment book.
Best,
PAG
It would be interesting but non-definitive. Many military personnel could have been concurrent students under Takeda, many could have seen Daito ryu for the first time under Ueshiba. Some could have liked or had access to Ueshiba more than the elderly Takeda who died in early 43.
What points do you think it would bring to the table?

Of course Ueshiba would have met and trained with many military figures during his tenure with Takeda, as Takeda was actively teaching them and the police department heads during that time. We know from various interviews that it was stated that Ueshiba was noted as a...Student of Takeda Sokaku, and it was for that reason he was asked to teach. Of course his skills, once seen or felt, spoke for themselves, but isn't that a separate issue?

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Old 09-29-2008, 06:31 PM   #138
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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I think the thrust of my points is without controversy.
PAG. The thrust of your point about him not teaching aikido is without controversy. That is why I mentioned aiki-budo and cited Shishida in support.

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What points do you think it would bring to the table?
PAG. I am not bringing any points "to the table", as you put it. I am interested in evidence other than that provided in the biographies and by Stan Pranin.

PAG

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Old 09-29-2008, 08:44 PM   #139
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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PAG. The thrust of your point about him not teaching aikido is without controversy. That is why I mentioned aiki-budo and cited Shishida in support.
Can you define his "aiki-budo?"
It appears he could. He copied the first two scrolls of Daito ryu verbatim and keeping everything intact-changed the name. It's worth noting that the students he handed these scrolls too seemed unmoved. They still considered what they were doing as Daito ryu.
To be clear. I was allowing that the students also stated he began to change the waza somewhat, and would talk of his "experimenting" during this time. So I had suggested he was in the process of a change. Further, I believe that "change" was empowered by Takeda teaching him aiki in 1922 on to their last training together in the mid thirties.
I've not seen anything to counter these statements, inclusive of the aiki-budo name. Have you another view?

Quote:
PAG. I am not bringing any points "to the table", as you put it. I am interested in evidence other than that provided in the biographies and by Stan Pranin.
PAG
That's interesting. This was the point I originally addressed.
Quote:
PAG. The issue for me would be how many officers practicing under Ueshiba at the military schools and at the Kobukan after 1936 would be entered in Takeda's enrollment book.
Best,
PAG
May I ask what the issue is in how many officers training with him-would be in Takeda Eimoroku?
The reason you would find this at all interesting?
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Old 09-29-2008, 09:54 PM   #140
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

"I think we are down to counting angels dancing on the head of a pin. Particularly as we are - mostly - in agreement."

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Can you define his "aiki-budo?
I have no interest in defining aiki-budo at this point. If you want to dispute my reference, find Shishida's book and read the relevant chapter.

Quote:
Dan Harden wrote: View Post
May I ask what the issue is in how many officers training with him-would be in Takeda Eimoroku?
The reason you would find this at all interesting?
Takeda and Ueshiba are supposed to have finally broken contact in 1936, but Ueshiba continued teaching at the military schools until 1942, though we do not know precise dates. I know from experience that Japanese universities and colleges keep detailed records of the names of classes taught, numbers and names of students etc and the same would be true especially of military institutions. So it would be very interesting to compare the subjects taught and class rolls after 1936 with the names in Takeda's eimeiroku.

Best wishes,

P A Goldsbury
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Old 09-29-2008, 10:01 PM   #141
DH
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

Hi Peter
I don't think I understand what I am disputing in your reference-you didn't define it. I did. I asked if you disagreed with it. Knowing you I would love to hear anything, even speculation as it is sure to be based on something

With the Military guys training with him later-I still am asking -why- it would be interesting? Do you have some sort of fascinating theory you are pondering? Or idle curiosity?
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Old 09-30-2008, 10:29 AM   #142
Ron Tisdale
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

One thing that would make it interesting...it is speculated that part of the reason for the break up is a matter of fees. If the military students in question are recorded in the scrolls, it would seem fees would be due. If they are not, and Ueshiba was teaching without recording, and possibly without collecting fees for his teacher, that would also be interesting.

I assume all of this would add to any rancor between Takeda and Ueshiba.

Best,
Ron

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Old 10-01-2008, 05:58 AM   #143
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
I know from experience that Japanese universities and colleges keep detailed records of the names of classes taught, numbers and names of students etc and the same would be true especially of military institutions.
I was wondering about this in the context of the sudden move to Iwama. Did not the founder had to justify his absence from the training duties to the military, especially if the training fees were paid by the government?

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Old 10-01-2008, 07:16 AM   #144
Peter Goldsbury
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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David Soroko wrote: View Post
I was wondering about this in the context of the sudden move to Iwama. Did not the founder had to justify his absence from the training duties to the military, especially if the training fees were paid by the government?
Mr Soroko,

In Kisshomaru's biography Morihei Ueshiba is alleged to have retired from his teaching commitments with the military on grounds of ill health. In my experience this is always accepted, partly from the fact that the 'four seasons' are generally believed to have an impact on the daily working environment to a degree unheard of outside Japan. So, you would not believe the effects of spring and autumn 'kaze' (usually the common cold, but also mild flu) on the Japanese economy and college teaching schedules.

In sumo, if a yokozuna loses more bouts than expected, he will usually retire from the tournament, citing an injury--either a recent injury, or an 'old' injury that has suddenly become 'troublesome'. This is usually done to safeguard the 'tatemae' that a yokozuna is never expected to lose.

Apart from Morihei Ueshiba's illness, one of the reasons why I would like to look at the military records is to see the real evidence of Morihei Ueshiba's status as an instructor (there would have been several categories, even in prewar days).
At Hiroshima University I was a sennin kyoju (tenured professor), which was the main category. There are other categories, like hijokin (non-tenured) or kakuin (emeritus or honorary)--and the payment structure is different in each case. If the status is hijokin, the schedule might be a regular class, taught at the same time each week, or an intensive course, taught over a few days.
The name of the subjects that Ueshiba taught would also be stated quite clearly--and it would not be Daito-ryu (or this is a general category and is inappropriate as a course name). Of course, I understand that to make a real comparison, you would need to compare a typical Japanese national university with a typical military college between 1931 and 1942.

If you look at the situation from the viewpoint of an officer at a military college, say, in Tokyo in 1937, there are several possibilities.
He might be subscribed for a course in jujutsu taught at the college by Instructor Morihei Ueshiba. This would be free and probably required.
He might also be a student at the Kobukan Dojo, training with Morihei Ueshiba or his senior instructors (like Shioda). This would not be free.
He might also be training directly under Sokaku Takeda (though this would be difficult in Tokyo in 1936, because Takeda was staying in Osaka and teaching at the Asahi Dojo) or his senior students. This, also, would not be free.

I have not seen any evidence that Sokaku Takeda was a regular instructor at military and police colleges in the same way that Morihei Ueshiba taught the Japanese military. However, if he was, I suspect that his courses would have been required courses.

Best wishes,

PAG

Last edited by Peter Goldsbury : 10-01-2008 at 07:23 AM.

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Old 10-01-2008, 07:41 AM   #145
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
Mr Soroko,
David, please.

Quote:
Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
In my experience this is always accepted, partly from the fact that the 'four seasons' are generally believed to have an impact on the daily working environment to a degree unheard of outside Japan. So, you would not believe the effects of spring and autumn 'kaze' (usually the common cold, but also mild flu) on the Japanese economy and college teaching schedules.
Interesting, even if the absence is permanent?

-- david
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Old 10-01-2008, 08:28 AM   #146
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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David Soroko wrote: View Post
David, please.

Interesting, even if the absence is permanent?

-- david
Yes. People have permanently retired from teaching positions at Hiroshima University on grounds of ill health (for example, a severe heart attack that has impaired the capacity for coping with the weekly class schedule). Of course, the grounds have to be stronger than incidental colds and flu, but they are usually accepted.

As an example, I was a member of a 'secret' committee, set up by the President to adjudicate the claims of a certain professor who objected on health grounds to being required to move to another campus. The professor had actually hired a lawyer, so we had to be very careful in our examination. Of course, the professor gave medical evidence, but we decided that he had to be examined by a 'neutral' doctor.

Best wishes,

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Old 10-20-2008, 02:13 PM   #147
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

note: The PDF naming is out of synch with the content pgoldsbury_2008-09 on this post = Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10.
The previous one was correct. #8 was a bit more subtle the pdf is called 7 and the text in the pdf calls itself #7, but the rest of the text matches the content of post #8.
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Old 10-20-2008, 02:41 PM   #148
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

If I'm not mistaken, the PDF naming refers to the year and month of publication, not the number of the article. So the latest one, TIE 10 has a PDF title of pgoldsbury_2008-09, referring to September of 2008 when it was posted. Not sure about other errors.

Tom Wharton

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Old 10-20-2008, 03:22 PM   #149
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Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 10

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Tom Wharton wrote: View Post
If I'm not mistaken, the PDF naming refers to the year and month of publication, not the number of the article. So the latest one, TIE 10 has a PDF title of pgoldsbury_2008-09, referring to September of 2008 when it was posted.
Yes, the above is correct.

Best,

-- Jun

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