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Old 11-13-2007, 03:45 PM   #51
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Fred Little wrote: View Post
Folding in, gently stirring, and vigorous whisking.....
I shall try these at next Aikido practice but I not sure how to whisk an uke.

David
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Old 11-13-2007, 04:16 PM   #52
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
David Skaggs wrote: View Post
I shall try these at next Aikido practice but I not sure how to whisk an uke.
That's easy. I put ukes at whisk almost every practice.

Cordially,

Erick Mead
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Old 11-13-2007, 04:28 PM   #53
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

All right, enough! This thread is getting fried by a couple bad eggs that are sure to take a beating
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Old 11-13-2007, 04:43 PM   #54
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
It is. But are we talking Ueshiba's aikido? Hirai's aikido? Nihon Goshin aikido?
Thanks for your reply Josh. I also admire your detailed knowledge here and would like to stress that I'm not necessarily disagreeing with you.

I imagine the description referred to Ueshiba's aikido, since it came from the Aikikai Foundation and Ibaraki Shibu Dojo websites. I am still curious to know if you think they have made translation errors on their own websites -- mistakes which are mirrored on websites and in literature around the globe. Will you contact the Aikikai as well as Jim Breen?

You might also want to look at the Wikipedia entry:

Quote:
Aikido is often translated as "the Way of unifying (with) life energy" [1] or as "the Way of harmonious spirit."
and

Quote:
The word "aikido" is formed of three kanji:

合 - ai - joining, harmonizing
気 - ki - spirit, life energy
道 - dō - way, path
Kind regards

Carl
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Old 11-14-2007, 02:25 AM   #55
Peter Goldsbury
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Smile Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Carl Thompson wrote: View Post
Thanks for your reply Josh. I also admire your detailed knowledge here and would like to stress that I'm not necessarily disagreeing with you.

I imagine the description referred to Ueshiba's aikido, since it came from the Aikikai Foundation and Ibaraki Shibu Dojo websites. I am still curious to know if you think they have made translation errors on their own websites -- mistakes which are mirrored on websites and in literature around the globe. Will you contact the Aikikai as well as Jim Breen?

Kind regards

Carl
Hello Carl,

Why should Josh contact the Aikikai? He is merely giving his opinion on an Internet discussion forum.

I myself am not sure if the Aikikai's mistakes are mirrored on websites and literature around the globe (which is the original and which is the mirror?), but I think they exist and are real mistakes. I know from experience that the Aikikai's expertise in translation from Japanese to English is not of a high order and have called them on it--many times.

Several years ago I had occasion to translate into English the Aikikai's international regulations. They have been changed since I did this, but you can still see almost all the results on the English language section of the website. Actually, what they wanted me to do was to produce an English version of the regulations, in 'real' native-speaker English, but which would reflect 100% all the subtle nuances of the Japanese original. The shihan responsible for the Japanese original was the late Sadateru Arikawa and I spent several hours with him trying to understand what the Japanese version actually meant. Arikawa Sensei used to come down to Hiroshima for training seminars and we would go crash-bang on the mat and then retire somewhere to discuss the regulations. He kept changing the Japanese text and expected me to intuit his unspoken reason for the changes and then produce an English version that exactly captured what he was trying to state in Japanese.

So I gave up and eventually produced an English version that contained all the problems of the Japanese original, but have never again undertaken to do any translation for the Aikikai. I had this problem with a legal text. Imagine what the Bieris had to contend with when they translated the introduction to Budo Renshu.

Actually, there is so much that O Sensei wrote that has never been translated that spending pages discussing the 'real' meaning of Ai-ki-do is somewhat limited in scope. Of course, you can do this and take the Mead approach (more honeyed) or the Reyer approach (less common), but it might be better to apply it to rather more than one singe word.

After all, it is the sentences that really count. Or do you think that the meaning of sentences is the aggregate of the meaning of the words they contain?

Best wishes and apologies for the length of the post.

Last edited by Peter Goldsbury : 11-14-2007 at 02:28 AM.

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Old 11-14-2007, 11:00 AM   #56
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
Several years ago I had occasion to translate into English the Aikikai's international regulations. ... He kept changing the Japanese text and expected me to intuit his unspoken reason for the changes ... I had this problem with a legal text. ... do you think that the meaning of sentences is the aggregate of the meaning of the words they contain?
In my undergrad days in a course on Japanese law and politics, my professor once remarked to the effect that the meaning of a sentence in Japanese is rather more the aggregate of the words it doesn't contain.

Cordially,

Erick Mead
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Old 11-14-2007, 12:47 PM   #57
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

I have done lots of translation/proof-reading - some for Japanese, most for Korean. Often, the hardest thing is not the text, but dealing with the person behind the text. They, thinking they know English better than I do, insist on more literal translation, which rarely works, but keeps them happy.

When I worked as an assisstant editor, however, I became more forceful in pushing my 'opinion' and often got my way. Sometimes, you just have to forget being nice and be direct and tell 'the profs' that they have no idea what they are talking about - it is never easy though - not exactly the best way to make friends and influence people. And then, sometimes, the chief ed ignores me (as the writer has influence) and publishes the original proof-read junk anyway. Now, I steer well clear of translation. I still proof-read stuff - but just for nice people.

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Old 11-14-2007, 07:26 PM   #58
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Thanks for your comment Mr. Goldsbury. I appreciated the length of it and found the part about translating for Arikawa sensei particularly interesting.

Quote:
Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
I'll raise the question on sci.lang.japan and see what the good folk there (including Jim Breen) have to say. The entry will likely be edited.
I asked Josh if he would contact the Aikikai because he said he would contact Jim Breen and others about the definition. I find a lot of what he writes on this forum quite fascinating and informative, so I am particularly interested to know where he stands. I was just as interested to read your opinion that the Aikikai have got it wrong.

Quote:
Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
I myself am not sure if the Aikikai's mistakes are mirrored on websites and literature around the globe (which is the original and which is the mirror?), but I think they exist and are real mistakes.
Regarding the mirroring, I just glanced at a few sites on the "Your dojo's website" thread and it seems the "harmony" view is very commonly repeated. In some cases they copy the Aikikai definition word for word.

Quote:
"Aikido" can be translated as "A way of coming to harmony with the life force of the universe." AI translates as "harmony", KI as "universal life force" and DO as "way" or "path."
Quote:
Based on the universal creative principal of Ki, Aikido ("the way of harmony with ki") utilizes the oncoming force of an attacker, harmonizing with it, to dissipate the attack and immobilize the attacker regardless of their size and number.
Quote:
Come and practice Aikido, the way of harmony, a dynamic martial art for the body, mind and spirit
etc

As I said, I am not necessarily disagreeing with Josh or your good self. I'm just curious to know who thinks this definition is wrong, why and to what degree.

Kind regards

Carl
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Old 11-15-2007, 12:01 AM   #59
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

I don't believe I'll be contacting the Aikikai because as an outsider it's simply not my place to do so, and thus they would simply ignore me. There are others for whom it would be more appropriate, if they were so inclined.

I said I would raise the issue on sci.lang.japan and let Jim Breen know because that's what Professor Breen would want. The dictionary he hosts is essentially like Wikipedia when it comes to new submissions -- anyone is free to make submissions, and if one seems a bit off, Professor Breen welcomes people alterting him to the entry. In this case, he edited the entry to remove the direct translation, feeling that a direct translation is unnecessary. I also wanted to hear what other speakers of Japanese, native and otherwise, had to say. True to s.l.j form, the discussion was quickly hijacked by encoding and character sets.

Quote:
I'm just curious to know who thinks this definition is wrong, why and to what degree.
I believe that the simple phrase "合, ai means 'harmony'" is at best misinformation, roughly on par with "English comes from Latin". I believe "aiki means 'harmony with ki'" is imprecise and a poor translation in general. I've said repeatedly that if people, particularly those of Ueshiba-style aikido, wish to define "aiki" as that (and note that a definition is distinct from a translation), then I have nothing to say to them.

I only speak up to clear up what I see as misleading and inaccurate representations of the Japanese language. (The grossest of which I have seen being the fellow quoted on E-Budo who said that "ai" was made up of "person", "one", and "mouth", signifying "person with one mouth", and thus, "everyone singing with one mouth", and thus, "harmony". Holy God, that is wrong on so many levels.) I do this only because the Japanese language means as much to me, and probably more, than budo. But in the large scheme of things, it's not a big deal. I'm aware I'm fighting a losing battle against an entrenched meme.

I'll end on one final note. "Harmony" is used to translate 合 in only two examples - aiki(do), and 和合 wagou. And wagou contains 和, which is frequently translated as "harmony", and can indeed mean "harmony" simply by itself.

And with that, I bow out of this discussion.

m(_ _)m Arigatou gozaimashita.

Last edited by Josh Reyer : 11-15-2007 at 12:04 AM. Reason: Fixed some tags...

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Old 11-15-2007, 07:37 AM   #60
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

And I bow to your detail and willingness to share.

I've personally often wondered about some of the uses of harmony in the translation. And noted that how my own teacher views "harmony" is not necessarily fluffy and nice.

This discussion has answered a lot of my questions, and clarified quite a few things for me, and I really appreciate you and Peter taking the time to elucidate us.

Best,
Ron

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Old 11-15-2007, 08:26 AM   #61
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Um, yeah, what Ron said.
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Old 11-15-2007, 08:33 AM   #62
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Ron Tisdale wrote: View Post
And noted that how my own teacher views "harmony" is not necessarily fluffy and nice.
Yeah, I remember a time taking ukemi for one of my sensei and listening to him explain how he "harmonized" with my attack. I was flat out on the ground face down with my arm twisted up behind me somewhere after having gone down rather, um, "robustly". Later I found I had a mat burn on my face... And it was my fault as I had "zoned out a bit" as I was really tired that day. I remember thinking at the time that the perception of harmony seemed to depend on whether you were the one hitting the deck... Nothing "nice" there. But it was certainly direct, fluid and with minimal conflict as I went face first into the tatami. I'd hate to think what would happen if it was over concrete...

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Old 11-15-2007, 08:47 AM   #63
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Yep. I feel your pain...

B,
R

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Old 11-15-2007, 09:01 AM   #64
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

I still like "fitting appropriately" (a version of Tomiki sensei's way of translating aikido).

Best regards,

Chuck Clark
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Old 11-15-2007, 09:35 AM   #65
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Joshua:

I really enjoyed this thread and these posts. Sometimes thing get a bit "out there" and it is good to have someone willing to discuss and hash out these things. Keeping things grounded if you will. I most certainly admire your dedication and willingness to share what you know of the subtleties of the Japanese language.

So ...

m(_ _)m Arigatou gozaimashita

back at ya!

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Old 11-15-2007, 11:47 AM   #66
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

I don't speak Japanese, and like most of the folks training in the States, was brought up on the standard mistaken translations. Josh's pointing out that these are misleading is important. As I have begun to figure out a bit about "aiki" in my own training via waza, I have become aware of the inadequacy of the standard translation. It simply has little or no descriptive value. But looking at translations that are more "correct" from the standpoint of Japanese language, one finds a much greater depth of description, something that actually points the way to what one is actually attempting to do in the art. This is much more helpful than folks simply applying their own, uninformed preconceptions to the term.

Thanks to all the fluent Japanese speakers here who have helped set the record straight.

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Old 11-15-2007, 05:29 PM   #67
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Thank you very much for your answer Josh, and please don't bow out completely.

Quote:
Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
I do this only because the Japanese language means as much to me, and probably more, than budo.
I've been studying Japanese as long as I've been studying Aikido (not long enough as far as I'm concerned), and both are dear to me too. Rest assured that I have the utmost respect for your Japanese ability and look forward to your posts. It's because of my own passion for the language and Aikido that I want to prod and poke your opinions to see what happens.

I personally don't feel like I know enough to have a strong opinion on this, which is why I am always happy to see the thoughts of those who have dedicated themselves to understanding the language and Aikido.

My next question is: if "harmony" is a poor definition of the "Ai" part of "Aikido," even within the context of the full compound, how should we define it?

Peace out

Carl
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Old 11-15-2007, 10:09 PM   #68
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
So, personally, I would translate "aikido" as "Way of Matching Energy". I like that translation because it is as universally applicable as "aikido".
Sorry, I forgot this for reference from earlier in the thread.
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Old 11-16-2007, 10:14 AM   #69
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
I certainly entertain the idea that the "aiki" of DRAJJ and the "aiki" of Ueshiba-ha (and Hirai-ha?) aikido are different. ... One thing that is quite clear, though, is that "ai" by no means means "harmony".

"Ai" by itself indicates a joining and/or matching. It is not at all "harmonious", indicated by it's use other phrases: kiri-ai (a swordfight), tachiai (a duel, or else the violent crashing together at the beginning of a sumo bout), iiai (an argument), oshiai-heshiai (pushing and jostling). Any kind of joined interaction of two or more entities -- harmonious, dissonant, or otherwise -- is an "ai" of some kind. IMO, the English concept closest to this idea is "meeting", and it's colloquial equivalent, "getting together"....

So, personally, I would translate "aikido" as "Way of Matching Energy".
Josh prefers this because of its "nicely vague" quality. That is precisely the opposite of what the process of definition is about -- to move toward precision -- not away from it.

The problem is not on the Japanese side of this debate. It is on the English side, and only because the word "harmony" is not primarily understood in its physical context.

Another interpretive problem is this: Josh (either one), for all his capability, is not an authority on this usage. Authoritative translations have EXPLICITLY used "harmony" in direct context to translate "aiki."

The best example of "harmony" as canonical translation:

"Aiki is the power of harmony, of all beings, all things working together."

That is the Bieri's translation of Abe Sensei's collection of the Doka. It also appears on the back cover of "Spirit of Aikido." The same translation appears elsewhere in Nidai Doshu's book, but I want to focus on a functional understanding of the translated usage of O Sensei.

Now if you read that statement in its metaphorical meaning of the fluffy-bunny, kumbaya-campfire-singing variety, then we have a problem, because aikido is properly none of those things, though it aspires to the peace that makes them possible. But it is a manufactured problem.

Aikido is primarily a physical art. Whatever campfire-singing intentions it may have are all mediated through its physicality -- not as metaphor. As a physical art art with a physical meaning the Doka statement should be understood PHYSICALLY.

"Harmony" is only problematic for the reasons that have been stated because its PHYSICAL meaning is being disregarded. It is in essence a strawman caused by a false and unstated assumption as the basis for its interpretation.

Understood physically, "Harmony" is EXACTLY the proper translation of what aiki physically DOES -- actually in keeping with Josh preferred sense of the Japanese meaning -- but itleads to a more precise understanding in ENGLISH of the physical meaning than his "nicely vague" choice.

"harmonia (Gr.) -- lit. "means of joining," related to harmos "joint, shoulder," from PIE *ar-ti-, from *ar- "to fit together."

The same root underlies "articulate" -- as in "articulated limbs."

In "Spirit of Aikido" there is this quote of O Sensei :

Quote:
In aikido there are no forms and no patterns. Natural movements are the movements of aikido. Its depth is profound and inexhaustible.
Now reconsider the Doka:

"Aiki is the power of harmony, of all beings, all things working together."

If "harmony" is correct as a physical argument then the chain of reasoning between the two statements in which "aiki" should be equivalent should lead back to it. If it does not, then it isn't.

Since it is movement that does work, substitute from the other statement ... eliminate what is redundant and eliminate the term to be examined to avoid circular argument.

"Aiki is ...things [in natural movement] together."

Now the next step:

What is natural movement?

"No form - no pattern." The movement has no definition apart from the physical constitutents of the "beings or things" that are working [naturally moving] together.

To put my body into an arbitrary form (vice a natural one) requires muscular effort of my limbs (i.e.-- more than that necessary to stand and move).

So, what are the natural constituting elements of my physical being without regard to the musculature necessary to put it into arbitrary forms?

Flexibly linked (articulated) rods.

What is the natural movement of flexibly linked rods?

Pendular.

What is the proper term for pendular motion?

Harmonic.

What is the proper term for two pendula "naturally moving" or working together?

Complex harmonic motion.

What is our term of art for that form of motion?

"Aiki"

Last edited by Erick Mead : 11-16-2007 at 10:27 AM.

Cordially,

Erick Mead
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Old 11-16-2007, 10:50 AM   #70
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Have you ever jumped on a trampoline with a partner? You know, when you try to bounce your partner higher in the air by coordinating your "down weighting" with your partner's. If the timing is right, you can send your partner ever higher into the air. That seems "aiki" to me.
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Old 11-16-2007, 11:05 AM   #71
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Ricky Wood wrote: View Post
Have you ever jumped on a trampoline with a partner? You know, when you try to bounce your partner higher in the air by coordinating your "down weighting" with your partner's. If the timing is right, you can send your partner ever higher into the air. That seems "aiki" to me.
A double oscillator harmonic that drives the system to resonance (damped only by the restorative inefficiencies of the trampoline). For adults of moderate to large weight, if you overdrive the resonance you can break the trampoline. I don't recommend it, although it is quite cruel fun to watch other people do it.

Cordially,

Erick Mead
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Old 11-16-2007, 11:38 AM   #72
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Erick Mead wrote: View Post
A double oscillator harmonic that drives the system to resonance.
Do we have a new definition of "aiki?"
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Old 11-16-2007, 12:01 PM   #73
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Erick Mead wrote: View Post
Josh prefers this because of its "nicely vague" quality. That is precisely the opposite of what the process of definition is about -- to move toward precision -- not away from it.
I said I like the translation because the vagueness in the translation matches up with the vagueness of the original, and can thus apply to every style of aiki-related budo.

The essential difference between you and me, Erick, is that I keep looking at this from the global perspective. As far as I'm concerned, any translation of "aiki" has to account for pre-Ueshiba and non-Ueshiba aiki arts. How someone translated one of the Doka is in that case interesting, but hardly authoritative.

By the by, regarding this Doka and it's canonical translation:
Quote:
"Aiki is the power of harmony, of all beings, all things working together."
The original is:
合気とは万和合の力なりたゆまずみがけ道の人々
Aiki to wa,
yorozu wagou no chikara nari;
Tayumazu migake
Michi no hitobito


In direct context, "harmony" is not used to translate "aiki". "Aiki" is left untranslated. "Harmony" is used in direct context to translate "wagou 和合".

Here, "aiki" is explained as the power of everything in harmony and unity. (和 = harmony, 合 = unity) Doesn't sound very fluffy bunny to me, and your physical explanation sounds apt. However, this particular doka is part of a series of doka on the "Aiki to wa" (Aiki is...) theme, and in addition to wagou, "love", "the form and heart of the kami", "unable to be expressed with mouth or brush", and "a way that is difficult to understand" are all used to directly define aikido, just like "yorozu wagou no chikara". My suggestion is explain the parsing of aikido with the core meanings of the kanji, vague though they may be, and use the Doka to expand that understanding, rather than create an ultra-context specific, non-idiomatic translations/definitions for the kanji.

合気とは愛の力の本にして愛はますます栄えゆくべし

合気とは神の御姿御心ぞいづとみづとの御親とほとし

合気とは筆や口にはつくされず言ぶれせずに悟り行へ

合気とは解けばむつかし道なれどありのままなる天のめぐりに

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Old 11-16-2007, 04:19 PM   #74
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

Quote:
Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
The essential difference between you and me, Erick, is that I keep looking at this from the global perspective. As far as I'm concerned, any translation of "aiki" has to account for pre-Ueshiba and non-Ueshiba aiki arts.
... To the extent there is a difference -- a point I remain agnostic about -- but basically unconvinced. But you are right, my only concern is Ueshiba's perspective.

Thanks by the way for providing the parallel kana with the romaji. My aikido books are in storage, weepingly, for the moment, ...
Quote:
Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
By the by, regarding this Doka and it's canonical translation:

The original is:
合気とは万和合の力なりたゆまずみがけ道の人々
Aiki to wa,
yorozu wagou no chikara nari;
Tayumazu migake
Michi no hitobito


In direct context, "harmony" is not used to translate "aiki". "Aiki" is left untranslated. "Harmony" is used in direct context to translate "wagou 和合".
We have another disconnect in underlying assumptions of purpose when it comes to "defining." You are interested in defining the term as to what it most readily or routinely signifies. While that is a laudable and legitimate concern in itself -- I am interested in defining the thing signified by a particular person using the term.

His precision of language in the abstract is not my concern; his precise intent in using it toward the concrete, is.

Quote:
Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
Here, "aiki" is explained as the power of everything in harmony and unity. (和 = harmony, 合 = unity) Doesn't sound very fluffy bunny to me, and your physical explanation sounds apt.
I prefer the Bieri's "Aiki is the power of harmony of all things working together." It appears, not withstanding that, that we are on the same page, if perhaps on opposites sides of the sheet. Turning it back and forth probably gets the more whole sense of it -- one reason, perhaps, for him providing so many Doka on a difficult topic we debate in two or three languages forty years after he ceased his active contribution to it.

Quote:
Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
However, this particular doka is part of a series of doka on the "Aiki to wa" (Aiki is...) theme, and in addition to wagou, "love", "the form and heart of the kami", "unable to be expressed with mouth or brush", and "a way that is difficult to understand" are all used to directly define aikido, just like "yorozu wagou no chikara".

My suggestion is explain the parsing of aikido with the core meanings of the kanji, vague though they may be, and use the Doka to expand that understanding, rather than create an ultra-context specific, non-idiomatic translations/definitions for the kanji.
And my suggestion is that poetry uses image, as kanji also use image, and so we should follow the images. Concrete images can very usefully transcend the denotative boundaries internal to a language when the boundaries of meaning a different languages do not directly map in cultural context. With some minimal cultural reference many non-Japanese enjoy translations of waka and haiku, which speak to them, as well, if not AS well, as to Japanese.

Given, X is X and Y is Y. I am not interested in identity but function. When a person addressing a question relates them by saying that X is Y then Y defines X as a function of its operation. Of course, it always possible that Z also defines X, or some subset of Z, or other dimensional quantities, also if they are relevant.

I will address what I see in these "Aiki to wa ..." images in relation to physically real functions in a separate post which will require a bit more time.

Cordially,

Erick Mead
一隻狗可久里馬房但他也不是馬的.
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Old 11-16-2007, 10:23 PM   #75
Erick Mead
 
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Re: Defining "Aikido"

My Tolkeinian take on some imagery of the Doka used to define aiki functionally:
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Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
合気とは愛の力の本...
"Aiki is the power of the root of love."

Love. Sympathy. Mirror neurons are the root of love -- Feeling another as oneself. A string of proper length and tension undergoes sympathetic vibration with any other vibrating element within sensible range.

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Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
合気とは筆や口...
"Aiki cannot be captured with the brush Nor can it be expressed with the mouth..."

Not written -- not spoken, in other words: Non verba. Res. Mono. Thing. Concrete physical reality. It is a trait of kami that they are not purely numinous, they have a concrete locus. While not constrained in what form that may take, spirituality in Japan is deeply tied to the physicality of its manifestation.

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Joshua Reyer wrote: View Post
合気とは解けばむつかし道なれどありのままなる天のめぐりに
Bieri: "Aiki!
A way so difficult to analyze
(But one needs only to) follow
The natural rotations of the
Heavens."

Rotations. Here and as far as your perception will reach.
This one has some other interesting features, that are indicative of the subtleties of O Sensei's uses of language, only hinted at by his pun on "ai" 合/愛:

なれ means "practice" but also when written in some expressions with合 means secret or subversive intimacy (with sexual subtext), thus also suggesting the same male--female imagery prominent elsewhere

どあり means "degree or extent" but is also written in kanji 度合 and also suggests periodic behavior.

Other doka speak to this same trope(in Bieri's translation), this one is particularly nice::

"The honored techniques if KI
May manifest the spirit of the Great Snake
Or that of Bees
To make such spirits (tama) appear
Is the Way of Takemusu"

Snake- sinuous undulation. Bees -- buzz at high frequency; oscillatory images at both ends of the spectrum

Cordially,

Erick Mead
一隻狗可久里馬房但他也不是馬的.
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