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Old 05-04-2007, 11:06 AM   #1
Ron Tisdale
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Creation of the name "Aikido"

To avoid cluttering up an existing thread, I thought I would post some more things here...The thread that started this is here: http://www.aikiweb.com/forums/showthread.php?t=12399

And this is yet another reference from Aikido Journal:

http://www.aikidojournal.com/article...IRAI%2C+MINORU

And from that, the following section is relevent:

Quote:
Dai Nippon Butokukai and the naming of aikido
A great deal of misunderstanding exists concerning the subject of how aikido actually got its name. Most people think reflexively that Morihei decided on the name “aikido” himself and that the term encapsulates his spiritual vision of budo as a means for self-development and the attainment of world peace. At the risk of appearing iconoclastic, we must point out that the coining of the word “aikido” actually came about as the result of a bureaucratic decision taken in 1942 within the Dai Nippon Butokukai, an umbrella organization assigned the task of regulating the martial arts. The name was simply a contraction or simplification of the term “aiki budo” then in use to describe Morihei’s art.
Best,
Ron

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Old 05-04-2007, 11:39 AM   #2
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

And yet,

As ai (harmony) is common with ai (love), I decided to name my unique budo Aikido, although the word "aiki" is an old one. The word which was used by the warriors in the past is fundamentally different from that of mine.-Morihei Ueshiba
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Old 05-04-2007, 11:49 AM   #3
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

Quote:
Jennifer Smith wrote: View Post
And yet,

As ai (harmony) is common with ai (love), I decided to name my unique budo Aikido, although the word "aiki" is an old one. The word which was used by the warriors in the past is fundamentally different from that of mine.-Morihei Ueshiba
And yet, he obviously felt that emphasizing the martial aspect of the way was important enough to include it in the name. It wasn't just the way/path/michi of aiki (whatever the definition was) but it was the martial way of aiki. Perhaps it's just coincidence, but personally, I think the "bu" was left in the past more ways than on paper...

Chris Moses
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Old 05-04-2007, 12:13 PM   #4
Ron Tisdale
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

And you might note that Hirai Sensei used Ai in the sense of love as well...in his interview with Stan Pranin...

Best,
Ron

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Old 05-04-2007, 02:44 PM   #5
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

Quote:
Jennifer Smith wrote: View Post
And yet,

As ai (harmony) is common with ai (love), I decided to name my unique budo Aikido, although the word "aiki" is an old one. The word which was used by the warriors in the past is fundamentally different from that of mine.-Morihei Ueshiba
The tradition of punning was ancient. From http://www.furyu.com/onlinearticles/Iizasa.html:

"Iizasa (1387-1488) is noted for saying "heiho wa heiho nari." It is a play on words. The first heiho can also be read hyoho; it means the military methods. The second heiho is written with the characters for peaceful methods. Thus, Iizasa was saying that the warrior arts should be arts for peace. This refers to a long-held belief among many martial arts masters, or bugeisha, that the highest level of expertise was in being able to win without fighting (arawazu ni katsu)."

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Old 05-05-2007, 02:20 PM   #6
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Don J. Modesto wrote: View Post
The tradition of punning was ancient. From http://www.furyu.com/onlinearticles/Iizasa.html:

"Iizasa (1387-1488) is noted for saying "heiho wa heiho nari." It is a play on words. The first heiho can also be read hyoho; it means the military methods. The second heiho is written with the characters for peaceful methods. Thus, Iizasa was saying that the warrior arts should be arts for peace. This refers to a long-held belief among many martial arts masters, or bugeisha, that the highest level of expertise was in being able to win without fighting (arawazu ni katsu)."
Punning is an ancient and powerful mystical practice in many traditons . A very specific example is the Heyoka of Lakota tradition who intentionally turns all motions and ideas backwards to alleviate sadness and heaviness in times of great struggle.
They 'SLAY YOU' with humor.

good stuff

I love to pun in the same vein. I'm sure I'm not alone.
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Old 05-05-2007, 02:25 PM   #7
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Christian Moses wrote: View Post
And yet, he obviously felt that emphasizing the martial aspect of the way was important enough to include it in the name. It wasn't just the way/path/michi of aiki (whatever the definition was) but it was the martial way of aiki. Perhaps it's just coincidence, but personally, I think the "bu" was left in the past more ways than on paper...
Absolutely

Last edited by jennifer paige smith : 05-05-2007 at 02:36 PM.
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Old 05-05-2007, 06:36 PM   #8
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Jennifer Smith wrote: View Post
And yet,

As ai (harmony) is common with ai (love), I decided to name my unique budo Aikido, although the word "aiki" is an old one. The word which was used by the warriors in the past is fundamentally different from that of mine.-Morihei Ueshiba
Does anyone know what he meant by "the word which was used by the warriors in the past"? Is he referring to Daito-ryu Aiki-jutsu? How is "aiki" defined in the old arts as compared to his "aiki"?

Also, I read somewhere that Ueshiba at one time actually considered changing the "Ai" kanji to the one used for "love". I may be wrong, and it may be one of his deshi that said that. Anyone know anything about this?

Last edited by John Matsushima : 05-05-2007 at 06:48 PM.

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Old 05-06-2007, 01:06 AM   #9
Peter Goldsbury
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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John Matsushima wrote: View Post
Does anyone know what he meant by "the word which was used by the warriors in the past"? Is he referring to Daito-ryu Aiki-jutsu? How is "aiki" defined in the old arts as compared to his "aiki"?
The direct source I have is Aiki-Shinzui, p.41. Aiki-Shinzui is a collection of columns from the Aikido Shinbun, which has been published over the years by the Aikikai Hombu. The collection was edited by the previous Doshu, Kisshomaru Ueshiba. Here is the complete paragraph, transcribed into Roman script, with my own translation:

"Mukashi kara, budou wa ayamatte jinmei wo taezu koroshiau houkou ni susunde kita no de aru ga, aiki wa jinmei wo sukuu tame ni aru no de aru. sunawachi hitogoroshi yobouhou ga aiki de aru. hito wo korosu nakare ga aiki de ari, 'ai' (= 合)wa 'ai' (= 愛) ni tsujiru no de, watashi wa etoku shita dokuji no michi wo 'aikido' to yobu koto ni shita no de aru. Shitagatte, juurai no bujutsu no hitobito ga kuchi ni suru 'aiki' to, watashi no iu 'aiki' to wa sono naiyou, honshitsu ga konpontekini kotonaru. Kono koto wo minasan wa oshiete hoshii to negau no de aru."

"Fron old times, budou mistakenly came to be a means of constantly ending human life, but aiki is something that preserves human life. Namely, aiki is a way of taking precaution against killing (i.e., homicide / murder). Aiki does not kill human beings and 'ai' (合 = matching) leads to 'ai' (愛 = love), so that I decided to give the name 'aikido' to the original way I discerned. Consequently, the term 'aiki' used up to now by people in the fighting arts and the term 'aiki' that I use are fundamentally different in content and substance. It is my hope and request that everyone teaches this."

Last edited by Peter Goldsbury : 05-06-2007 at 01:08 AM.

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Old 05-06-2007, 04:17 AM   #10
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

Thank you Mr. Goldsbury for the information. The explanation does well to explain how aiki is applied in aikido as compared to budo of the past, but doesn't show how it is different in "content and in substance". I'm wondering if the aiki of old refers to the old saying in ju-jutsu which states "When pushed, pull; when pulled, push".

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Old 05-06-2007, 05:27 AM   #11
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

If one only looks at the name coining, the facts are well recorded. As I wrote here: http://www.aikiweb.com/forums/showpo...44&postcount=4.

The name "AIKIDO" was coined by Mr. Hisatomi (from the Kodokan) . He was a member of a Dai-Nihon-Butokai committee, headed by Sensei Hirai.
The Purpose of this comitee is often disputed:

Hirai and his followers (students and family) indicate the purpose was a new department for practical Ju-Jutsu (see the interview) and had nothing to do with the Ueshiba organization of the time. According to this claim Hirai left his job in the Ueshiba organization for a new job at the Dai-Nihon-Butokai as a head of a new department, on his own standing as a gifted martial artist. This claim has some support in Hirai receiving Hanshi title from the Dai-Nihon-Butokai (and not Ueshiba ). If this claim is true, the term "Aikido" had nothing to do with the term "Aiki-Budo" Ueshiba used previously, and everything to do with the popularity of the Aiki concept among Japanese martial artist of that era (I heard some Koryu styles actually added Aiki into their names around the same period).

Most of Ueshiba followers are not even aware of this chapter In history, and mistakenly believe Ueshiba to coin the name. Those who do know of it often claim Hirai was in the Dai-Nihon-Butokai as a representative of Ueshiba and indicate to his giving certificates of authorization to Ueshiba students as evidence to his belonging in the organization.

I wrote my personal opinion - guess more then once, I think both are right, in some sense. E.G. Hirai left the Ueshiba organization in favor of the Dai-Nihon-Butokai,but, he did not severe his ties, and continued good relations with Ueshiba. Thus the latter considered him to be his representative regardless of the official position.

Amir
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Old 05-06-2007, 06:30 AM   #12
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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John Matsushima wrote: View Post
Thank you Mr. Goldsbury for the information. The explanation does well to explain how aiki is applied in aikido as compared to budo of the past, but doesn't show how it is different in "content and in substance". I'm wondering if the aiki of old refers to the old saying in ju-jutsu which states "When pushed, pull; when pulled, push".
Well, I do not think that Morihei Ueshiba will help you at all here. The only technical discussions he ever made are in Budo Renshu and Budo and these were actually written by someone else.

The discourse from which I quoted is one of a whole section in which he discusses the harmony (wa) of the universe (uchu). The section is entitled "Aiki to wa Aiki de aru", where the first 'aiki' is the 'aiki' of aikido, and the second 'aiki' is 'ai' ( = love) and 'ki'.

The puns and metaphors are all over the place and you need to read the old Japanese creation myths to have a peg on which to hang his discussion.

There is a discussion in Aikido Masters where Morihei Ueshiba's nephew, Noriaki Inoue, states that it was Onisaburo Deguchi who told Morihei Ueshiba that 'Daito-ryu jujutsu' was not the correct name for the art that Sokaku Takeda was practising and that he should call it 'aiki'. Inoue states that Ueshiba talked to Takeda and as a result the latter agreed to add 'aiki' to the name. Thus Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu. This appears to have been at the time when Takeda visited Ayabe in 1922.

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Old 05-06-2007, 06:43 AM   #13
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

Mr Krause,

I personally do not believe that there is any disagreement that the name 'aikido' was decided by a committee of the Dai Nippon Butokukai and not invented by Morihei Ueshiba. I do, however, believe that Ueshiba himself agreed to adopt the name for the art that he had created. This is not to deny, of course, that other organizations also used the name, without any reference to Morihei Ueshiba.

Best wishes,

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Old 05-06-2007, 08:13 AM   #14
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
Mr Krause,

I personally do not believe that there is any disagreement that the name 'aikido' was decided by a committee of the Dai Nippon Butokukai and not invented by Morihei Ueshiba. I do, however, believe that Ueshiba himself agreed to adopt the name for the art that he had created. This is not to deny, of course, that other organizations also used the name, without any reference to Morihei Ueshiba.

Best wishes,
I agree. O'Sensei made a decision to name his art. Previously on this post there has been a lot of either or, this or that's, and he said- she said. I still have not found any place where these distinctions are necessary for practical study or where the either-or choices seem to add to understanding. I simply believe O'Sensei when he said he decided to name his art. There is room for everything else in this thread to co-habitate with that.

I would also like to return to a question about the use of the word Ai ;to match or to love depending on Kanji. O'Sensei at times used them interchangabley. I reflect on 'Why?" in the volume of my own practice. I have had some beautiful insights in the light of this question; as I believe O'Sensei intended, for he did give us Doka( didactic instructional poems).

thanks for the discussion

Last edited by jennifer paige smith : 05-06-2007 at 08:18 AM.
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Old 05-06-2007, 10:27 AM   #15
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
Mr Krause,

I personally do not believe that there is any disagreement that the name 'aikido' was decided by a committee of the Dai Nippon Butokukai and not invented by Morihei Ueshiba. I do, however, believe that Ueshiba himself agreed to adopt the name for the art that he had created. This is not to deny, of course, that other organizations also used the name, without any reference to Morihei Ueshiba.

Best wishes,
Dear Prof. Goldsbury

I fully agree with your statements above and never intended to imply anything else. I further believe Morihei Ueshiba actively chose to adopt the name "Aikido" for his M.A. after it was coined by the Dai Nippon Butokukai.

Best Wishes

Amir
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Old 05-06-2007, 11:02 AM   #16
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

The interview of Minoru Hirai with Stanley Pranin is quite interesting. It seems Hirai had already discovered aikido before he met Osensei. The meeting just confirmed his findings. It's like they both invented aikido in a way. Could someone give additional info on this subject?
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Old 05-06-2007, 12:15 PM   #17
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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John Matsushima wrote: View Post
Does anyone know what he meant by "the word which was used by the warriors in the past"? Is he referring to Daito-ryu Aiki-jutsu? How is "aiki" defined in the old arts as compared to his "aiki"?
Another take,
http://swordforumbugei.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=1202

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Old 05-06-2007, 05:44 PM   #18
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Don J. Modesto wrote: View Post
Hello Don,

Toby explains that the term 'aiki' was introduced by Takeda in 1922, but does not explain the circumstances. In oue's statement is surprising, given the mutual antipathy between Takeda and Deguchi, but there seems to have been no such antipathy between Inoue and Takeda, who appears to have quite liked him.

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Old 05-08-2007, 02:46 AM   #19
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
Hello Don,

Toby explains that the term 'aiki' was introduced by Takeda in 1922, but does not explain the circumstances. In oue's statement is surprising, given the mutual antipathy between Takeda and Deguchi, but there seems to have been no such antipathy between Inoue and Takeda, who appears to have quite liked him.
Dear Prof. Goldsbury

Is this explanation correct?
I heard the term Aiki was "fashionable" (among Martial Artists) long before then, already at the end of the 18th century. Can you elaborate?

Thanks
Amir
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Old 05-08-2007, 06:15 AM   #20
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

Quote:
Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
Hello Don,

Toby explains that the term 'aiki' was introduced by Takeda in 1922, but does not explain the circumstances. In oue's statement is surprising, given the mutual antipathy between Takeda and Deguchi, but there seems to have been no such antipathy between Inoue and Takeda, who appears to have quite liked him.
I've not read Toby's article, but the above statement is incorrect. We have Taiso Horikawa's entry in his training journal from 1913 discussing Aikijujutsu. In various places "use aiki here" or "aiki" is this or that.
It is also mentioned by others who trained with Takeda before the Ayabe period. I see the ayabe period used as just another attempt by those in Aikido to steal and discredit even more away from Takeda. Albeit with this in a more subtle way-as if to say in some way Ueshiba aided or helped Takeda to develope his own art.

The Ayabe name change
We can do nothing more than speculate on the Ayabe relationship. It lasted almost 6 months and I believe it was at this time that Ueshiba was given more advanced training by his teacher, Takeda. Obviously Deguchi was impressed by Takeda's skills and what he was doing with Ueshiba. Impressed enough to suggest the driving force behind the art -its aiki- be part of the name.
That said, I think the name change is ridiculously overplayed and has little meaning. Nothing changed. Not one thing. Takeda's skills were already intact. His teachings were already in the hands of Ueshiba's "fellow" students, Kodo, Sagawa, and Hisa. The name change did nothing to change the art, or its adepts.
Daito ryu's In-yo-ho begins in you, not in a "meeting" with anyone.
Aiki is developed in you, strengthened in you. It is this aiki connection within you that makes true "connection" with others possible. Without it the "connection" most do is just technique and timing. Its thoroughly external waza....called.....aiki.

The Dai Nippon Butokukai name change as a category of displayed arts
Probably a more accurate understanding of why in1942 the Dai Nippon Butokukai, an umbrella organization assigned the task of regulating the martial arts-coined a segment of the demonstrations as aikido, is the fact that it looked different than all the other budo of its day. Daito ryu, without its use of "aiki" is just jujutsu. As in most all jujutsu, there is a reliance on hips and legs, with strikes and weapons to throw or complete techniques. The naming of a section for the art to be displayed was NOT simply a contraction or simplification of the term “aiki budo” then in use to describe Morihei’s art, it was a recognition of these "aiki" fellows doing something different. The lack of use of the legs in throwing being one simple- yet profound- change compared to most jujutsu of the era. And I wouldn't necessarily consider the designation of a new category by the Dai Nippon Butokukai as much of a compliment as many are want to do. One could even equate that to an insult. That these Aiki antics weren't "good" enough to be equal to the likes of Takenouchi ryu or Yagyu ryu. So they were given the ol corporate "latteral promotion" to their own category. "Let em go play over there since they're different than us."

Last edited by DH : 05-08-2007 at 06:29 AM.
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Old 05-08-2007, 06:58 AM   #21
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Amir Krause wrote: View Post
Dear Prof. Goldsbury

Is this explanation correct?
I heard the term Aiki was "fashionable" (among Martial Artists) long before then, already at the end of the 18th century. Can you elaborate?

Thanks
Amir
I think the popularity of the term 'aiki' is a different matter from that of its adoption in DRJJ. It was Stanley Pranin who interviewed Noriaki Inoue and the evidence is on p.23 of Aikido Masters. In the original Japanese edition the section of the interview appears on p.49 and in the new revised Japanese edition (published in 2006) on pp.45-46 of Volume I. Aiki News is a reliable outfit and if Inoue was mistaken, I would think that Stanley Pranin would have omitted the section, or drawn attention to it. He does not, so I suggest you take it up with him, for I have no axe to grind concerning the matter.

Last edited by Peter Goldsbury : 05-08-2007 at 07:02 AM.

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Old 05-08-2007, 01:36 PM   #22
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Takeda's skills were already intact. His teachings were already in the hands of Ueshiba's "fellow" students, Kodo, Sagawa, and Hisa. The name change did nothing to change the art, or its adepts.
I'm not sure your dates add up here with regard to all of those named above at the time that Ueshiba and Takeda were both in Ayabe.

Though I agree completely with regards to the use of aiki in the name of Takeda's art, there's a lot of evidence that contradicts the claim that Ueshiba (or Deguchi) somehow had something to do with it, I've always been skeptical about that one.

Mike

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Old 05-08-2007, 01:50 PM   #23
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
Toby explains that the term 'aiki' was introduced by Takeda in 1922, but does not explain the circumstances. In oue's statement is surprising, given the mutual antipathy between Takeda and Deguchi, but there seems to have been no such antipathy between Inoue and Takeda, who appears to have quite liked him.
Hi, Peter,

If you mean it's strange that Takeda should have changed the name of his art based on Deguchi's suggestion, I agree. I've often wondered about that.

As to the teacher and the nephew, I haven't my books before me, but didn't Inoue dislike Takeda even if Takeda liked Inoue? I recall him grumbling at Takeda's attempt to get him to sign his books (which seems to imply that Inoue would then have to pay for his time on the mat) and Inoue's ongoing pride in his precocious rudeness to Takeda, among others.

Do I recall wrong?

Don J. Modesto
St. Petersburg, Florida
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Old 05-08-2007, 03:16 PM   #24
Peter Goldsbury
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Don J. Modesto wrote: View Post
Hi, Peter,

If you mean it's strange that Takeda should have changed the name of his art based on Deguchi's suggestion, I agree. I've often wondered about that.

As to the teacher and the nephew, I haven't my books before me, but didn't Inoue dislike Takeda even if Takeda liked Inoue? I recall him grumbling at Takeda's attempt to get him to sign his books (which seems to imply that Inoue would then have to pay for his time on the mat) and Inoue's ongoing pride in his precocious rudeness to Takeda, among others.

Do I recall wrong?
Hello Don,

This is what Toby actually stated:
"Daito ryu was probably the first art to use the term aiki as a means of defining its greater curriculum. Takeda's use of the term aiki in conjunction with jujutsu to describe Daito ryu apparantly began around 1922. It must be noted that Shidare Yanagi ryu evidently used the moniker aiki bugei around the same time but there is no hard evidence to support a contention that this use of the term predated the term aikijujutsu coined by Daito ryu's Sokaku Takeda. A Yoshida family historical photograph does exist dating from the late 1920's or early 30's showing a makimono where the kanji "Yanagi ryu Aiki Bugei" is clearly visible. Whether Yoshida Kotaro, a student of both Daito ryu and his family art of Shidare Yanagi ryu was influenced by Takeda to adopt the term "aiki" into the name Shidare Yanagi ryu remains unknown."

I think you need to dig out the books. Inoue was quite clearly practising Daito-ryu in 1922 and clearly liked Deguchi, much more than he liked Takeda. But this is 20 years before the name 'Aikido' was coined and in the Pranin interview Inoue presents himself as someone with an independent viewpoint. I did not see his remarks as "just another attempt by those in Aikido to steal and discredit even more away from Takeda". But, as I stated, I have no axe to grind here.

Best,

P A Goldsbury
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Old 05-09-2007, 01:09 PM   #25
Don_Modesto
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Re: Creation of the name "Aikido"

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Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
I think you need to dig out the books. Inoue was quite clearly practising Daito-ryu in 1922 and clearly liked Deguchi, much more than he liked Takeda. But this is 20 years before the name 'Aikido' was coined and in the Pranin interview Inoue presents himself as someone with an independent viewpoint. I did not see his remarks as "just another attempt by those in Aikido to steal and discredit even more away from Takeda". But, as I stated, I have no axe to grind here.
Thanks, Peter.

Don J. Modesto
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