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Old 08-21-2011, 07:19 PM   #26
Peter Goldsbury
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Re: O-sensei rules

Quote:
Diana Frese wrote: View Post
I just want to say that anytime you feel like mentioning the three treasures, the mirror, the jewel and the sword I will not nod off!
Hello Diana,

"A mirror, a sword and a jewel have been handed down from ruler to ruler in the Japanese dynasty as tokens of legitimate authority. Writers of the fifteenth century have interpreted them as symbolizing the virtues the nation should cultivate: the mirror enabling us to see things as they are, good or bad, and thus becoming the true source of fairness and justice, the sword "firm, sharp and quickly decisive, wherein lies the true origin of all wisdom", the jewel, a moon-like symbol of gentleness and piety. It would be difficult to state more succinctly the standards of any inquiry into the mind of a foreign nation and for this reason I have chosen it as the title of this book." (Kurt Singer, Mirror, Sword and Jewel: The Geometry of Japanese Life, 1973, 1981, p. 25.)

Have you read it?

PAG

P A Goldsbury
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Old 08-21-2011, 09:14 PM   #27
Allen Beebe
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Re: O-sensei rules

Quote:
Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
Hello Diana,

"A mirror, a sword and a jewel have been handed down from ruler to ruler in the Japanese dynasty as tokens of legitimate authority. Writers of the fifteenth century have interpreted them as symbolizing the virtues the nation should cultivate: the mirror enabling us to see things as they are, good or bad, and thus becoming the true source of fairness and justice, the sword "firm, sharp and quickly decisive, wherein lies the true origin of all wisdom", the jewel, a moon-like symbol of gentleness and piety. It would be difficult to state more succinctly the standards of any inquiry into the mind of a foreign nation and for this reason I have chosen it as the title of this book." (Kurt Singer, Mirror, Sword and Jewel: The Geometry of Japanese Life, 1973, 1981, p. 25.)

Have you read it?

PAG
Here are a few more tidbits:

At Hagurozan, a sacred mountain part of the Dewa Sanzan (three sacred mountains, popular among Shugendo (Shugendo being the way of mountain ascetic practice, combining Mikkyo (Esoteric Buddhism), Onmyodo (Taoism) and Shinto (Way of the God, there is a pool where individuals threw in mirrors. The are bronze. Probably when you think of ancient mirrors, think of bronze. A reflection acts at the speed of light and reflects without preference or prejudice that which comes before it.

The sword is likely of the strait double edge type (the single edge variety came later). In Shingon (Yes, this is relevant towards Shinto and Japanese symbolism in general. Don't take my word for it, check for yourself!) the sword is also of a double edge variety and represents adamantine wisdom. (Double edge In/Yo . . . ), The lotus represents compassion, that balances wisdom. (Wisdom is necessarily cold and decisive, like a diamond or sword. The lotus is warm and compassionate. These two are necessary for a proper balance. (In/yo and all that . . . ) The jewel, some say, is in the form of a spiral. As in the commonly seen Sangen in Shinto (and Koyasan Shingon Shu) which represent the three "tama" or souls, with the forth tama being implicit.

By the way this representation is in common with the のし expressed in Daito Ryu which, I understand from the pedagogy of Shirata Rinjiro sensei as のし/しの which is one "jewel" balanced by another jewel, or (again), In/Yo or Yin/Yang. (O-sensei seemed to think a lot of In/Yo, Yin/Yang, Izanagi/Izanami, Red/White, etc., etc.)

Okay, my train of thought is officially off the rails again. To wrap myself up . . .

O-sensei

Shinko Shukyo = Yes
Shinto = Yes
Shugendo = Yes
Shingon Mikkyo = Yes

I actually did a graduate thesis project on the religions influences on Aikdo (don't' ask me how that came about, it wasn't my idea) and I used to have a picture of O-sensei's Kamiza and upon it was also appeared to be a "portrait" of Jesus.

So we are talking about a pretty eclectic guy here. I happen to "get off" on this kind of stuff. BUT . . .

in relation to Aikido I think religious route is the the long way around (see the above influence all boiled down through one individual), while martially Daito Ryu is the short way. It is clearly the primary martial influence on O-sensei and guess what? Daito Ryu shares a common usage of the term "Aiki" . . . probably for a reason!!

Shinko Shukyo doesn't use the term so much although those associated with Omoto Kyo have an equally tight association with Aikido . . . how about that!

Shinto = ?
Shugendo = ?
Shingon = ?

We are tailing about Aiki Do . . . right?

Okay, train fully de-railed and headed toward the fridge for more "spirits!"

Diana,

I highly recommend listening to Peter!

Peter,

I'm transferring to Amazon to look up "Kurt Singer, Mirror, Sword and Jewel: The Geometry of Japanese Life, 1973, 1981"

Okay, walking away from the keyboard now . . .

I love you man!


~ Allen Beebe
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Old 08-21-2011, 09:27 PM   #28
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Re: O-sensei rules

Book ordering compete! Thank you Amazon . . .

and Prof. Peter Goldsbury!



Cheers,
Allen

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Old 08-22-2011, 12:13 AM   #29
Ethan Weisgard
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Re: O-sensei rules

Regarding O-Sensei's rules:
In rule number 5 the English translation I see that is quoted in this thread is: "The daily practice begins with light movements of the body..."

The Japanese text states that "Make sure to begin practice daily with Tai no Henko..." Please refer to Takemusu Aikido Special Edition "Budo" from Aiki News, page 41.

The Japanese version is quite a bit more specific.

Something happened along the way.

In aiki,

Ethan Weisgard
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Old 08-22-2011, 01:05 AM   #30
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Re: O-sensei rules

Ethan, in you opinion, what are the odds that the "light movements of the body" is a dilution of a specific practice? Or the other way around, what are the odds that the specific exercise is narrowing down of a general practice?

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Old 08-22-2011, 03:12 AM   #31
Peter Goldsbury
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Re: O-sensei rules

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David Soroko wrote: View Post
Ethan, in you opinion, what are the odds that the "light movements of the body" is a dilution of a specific practice? Or the other way around, what are the odds that the specific exercise is narrowing down of a general practice?
Hello David,

Here is some essential background to the discussion. We need to be very clear about where the various quotations actually appear.

First, the Japanese original of the phrase, "the daily practice begins with light movements of the body...", quoted by Ethan in his post is:
日々の練習に際しては先ず体の変化より初め逐次強度を高め身体に無理を生ぜしめざるを要す...
This is the stock text used by Kisshomaru Ueshiba.

The Japanese original of what is quoted by Ethan from p. 41 of Saito Sensei's book is the same (except for certain kanji and kana):
日々ノ練習ニ際シテハ先ヅ體ノ變化ヨリ初マリ逐次強度ヲ高メ身體ニ無理ヲ生セシメザルヲ要ス...
This is the text of Kokoro-e No. 5 used in the Budo volume and appears in the PDF file given by Allen Beebe in Post #18.

Secondly, the English translation of this phrase as, "the daily practice begins with light movements of the body..." can be found in K Ueshiba's Aikido (1963, p.174) and also in K Tohei's Aikido: The Coordination of Mind and Body for Self Defence (1966, p. 58). Remember, however, that the Japanese original is as given above.

Thirdly, the both the Budo text and the two volumes by K Tohei and K Ueshiba go on to prescribe what the former calls 準備動作 junbi-dousa. Both of the latter volumes include the particular exercise that appears on p.41 of Saito Sensei's book.

This particular exercise is the third in the Budo section of 準備動作 junbi-dousa (on p. 10) and is given as 體ノ左右ノ変化: karada no sa-u no henka. In fact, the Japanese text given on p. 40 of Saito Sensei's book can be found on p. 11 of Budo (with Photo No. 8) and explains what to do with the feet after the tai no henka has been completed.

One issue is that (1) Saito Sensei and Stanley Pranin leave tai no henka untranslated, even in the extract quoted by Ethan, and (2) their commentary does not list the five kokoro-e at all, whether in Japanese or English.

So I do not think the kokoro-e shows anything that narrows down general practice. The two Japanese texts of the kokoro-e are virtually identical: it is the English translation of No. 5 that is the issue.

Best wishes,

PAG

Last edited by Peter Goldsbury : 08-22-2011 at 03:18 AM. Reason: Italicizing etc.

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Old 08-22-2011, 04:47 AM   #32
Ethan Weisgard
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Re: O-sensei rules

Thank you, Peter, for the very clear reply. The point, as you mention, is that a basic, clearly defined body movement / technique - Tai no Henka / Henko - has been translated into an unspecified term - which could cover basically any kind of warming-up excercise. Why that would happen is something that would merely be speculation from my side, but it would be interesting to hear the answer from the translator himself.

In aiki,

Ethan
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Old 08-22-2011, 06:30 AM   #33
Peter Goldsbury
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Re: O-sensei rules

Hello Ethan,

Well, if the translators of the Kisshomaru U and Tohei volumes were the same people (Kazuaki Tanahashi & Roy Maurer Jr), I think they are no longer with us. So, we can only speculate.

Both books have a large number of basic preparatory exercises (including one called tai no henka, on p. 30 of Kisshomaru Ueshiba's Aikido, and also an exercise on pp. 65-67 of Koichi Tohei's book, though he calls it kokyu-ho undou). I suspect that the translators of the 'rules' were aiming for something more general than specific waza.

John Stevens comes somewhere in between, with his version:
"In daily training, begin with basic movements to strengthen the body, without overexertion."

Best wishes,

PAG

PS. When will you next be visiting this part of the world?

P A Goldsbury
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Old 08-22-2011, 10:17 AM   #34
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Re: O-sensei rules

Good Morning Peter,

Besides an obviously superior command of (either ) language, it appears as though you happen to have the majority, if not all, (there may be other versions floating around) of the texts being compared.

Thank you!,
Allen

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Old 08-22-2011, 10:28 AM   #35
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Re: O-sensei rules

Lion OSX lets one highlight a Kanji or Kanji compound and it looks it up lickety split and provides a pretty good (way better than nothing) dictionary, all without having to use an additional program. Too bad it doesn't work on PDFs.

Does anyone know of a good OCR that will convert PDFs? I used to have one for my PC in the 90's (I wasn't quite so lazy in the '90s) and it worked pretty well. Here we are, finishing up 2011. Certainly there must exist something much better by now.

If anyone knows of a converter of PDF or OCR that does Japanese and works on Lion OSX, I'd love to hear about it!

Thanks,
Allen

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Old 08-22-2011, 11:12 AM   #36
Diana Frese
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Re: O-sensei rules

I have never fished for fish, although my mom said she did in younger days, and I hope I never fished for compliments too much over the years, but now I am having great fun dropping questions on Aikido and Japanese culture in its many aspects all over the threads and blogs, so I'm glad Allen and Peter and others have picked up on them and kindly answered.

For those interested in the actual practice, those basic body movements are something that I am sure will help me get back into training. There are some breathing exercises that I think Yamada Sensei got from Tamura Sensei and passed on to us in the late seventies or early eighties that I took and tried to use for myself and my students at the YMCA (they were great for practicing on the roof of the Y running track or on a small hill we used to have that looked out over Long Island Sound) These breathing exercises had the jodan, chudan, gedan reaching up to inhale breathing out bringing the hands down towards the face, sideways and in for the chudan, and then lower outward and in towards the navel. It was just a general direction of the hands as I remember and served to balance the body along with the expansion of the breath, and I added a reaching out with curved elbow to simulate the start of a roll for the fourth part to the exercise, because I wanted students (and myself) to remember to lower our weight and balance prior to rolling. I was delighted to be teaching at a Y, because I got to work on all sorts of fascinating homework I had picked up, and develop it for the benefit of myself, my assistants and especially beginners, I wanted to see if it would help them.

Yep, those were great years, both learning from teachers and fellow students, and learning from my own students.

About the tai no henko, unfortunately most of my books ended up in the family storage, but fortunately we may be able to rearrange everything and get them out later this year.

I was able to remember some of what I called "turns" and usually had myself and my class work on them after the basic warm ups. So we wouldn't get tangled up in our own feet, I always announced with a smile.

Well, a little something in return to thank all of you for your help in my resumed and continuing studies!
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Old 08-22-2011, 11:22 AM   #37
Diana Frese
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Re: O-sensei rules

Just remembered, the breathing Yamada Sensei got from Tamura Sensei, I think .... was different, but he may have done the ones I mentioned also. I really must get to NY!

Drawing the hands up to the face then breathing out pressing the palms down, then something about bringing the hands over the head, then down to the sides breathing out, and something about one hand up and one down with similar breathing...

Am I ever out on a limb now! Let me know if anyone remembers these, please. I promise if I get to see Yamada Sensei I will let you know. He will probably burst out laughing after all these years. When he noticed me watching a class he taught at a nearby dojo, he asked in true movie star fashion "Do I know you?" Right from the mat .... the man does have a sense of humor! But enough anecdotes from me for today...
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Old 08-22-2011, 11:35 AM   #38
Diana Frese
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Re: O-sensei rules

Here I am back again, because the mention of Omoto reminds me of a book I had somewhere that was moisture damaged when we had our storage in the basement, but no one seems to have mentioned "the Eagle and the Rising Sun" about the Japanese new religions. Some of you scholars may have heard of it! I think Seicho no Ie may have derived from Omoto. all religions from one Truth, or something like that.

Anyway the book, which I read many years ago, was a fascinating account of people's search for understanding of I suppose we could call it Ten Chi Jin no Wago no Michi (as Arikawa Sensei once quoted to a few of us in the little coffee shop)

Well, the successful metaphoric fisherwoman asks another question.... hope this one is of interest too...

thanks in advance, Daian
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Old 08-22-2011, 12:12 PM   #39
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Re: O-sensei rules

Quote:
Diana Frese wrote: View Post
Here I am back again, because the mention of Omoto reminds me of a book I had somewhere that was moisture damaged when we had our storage in the basement, but no one seems to have mentioned "the Eagle and the Rising Sun" about the Japanese new religions. Some of you scholars may have heard of it! I think Seicho no Ie may have derived from Omoto. all religions from one Truth, or something like that.

Anyway the book, which I read many years ago, was a fascinating account of people's search for understanding of I suppose we could call it Ten Chi Jin no Wago no Michi (as Arikawa Sensei once quoted to a few of us in the little coffee shop)

Well, the successful metaphoric fisherwoman asks another question.... hope this one is of interest too...

thanks in advance, Daian
Hi Daian,

If I recall correctly, Masaharu Taniguchi was an editor for Omoto Kyo, which is very significant because Omoto Kyo was a publishing giant during that time. Anyway, he received a Devine message and started Seicho no Ie, I think coincidentally this happened around the time of one of the Omoto suppressions by the government.

Seicho no Ie got along well with the government, and as a consequence came under the scrutiny of the post-War occupational government. This worked itself out (with the help of certain members of the Military Intelligence who benefitted personally from a miraculous remote healing attributed to Masaharu Taniguchi himself). Seicho no Ie found its way to Hawaii and members were instrumental in helping to bring Aikido (note the connections) to Hawaii.

As an aside, Masaharu Taniguchi was a very prolific writer and, I believe, translated many of his works into English, others were translated by other members. Seicho no Ie continues to exist in many foreign countries including the U.S.A. I don't know about now, but they used to have a Japanese section and an English section in their U.S. operations. They were quite different, but that is to be expected. There were similar translation "modifications" that made the two sources of textual information quite different from each other.

I once had an interesting conversation with a certain highly placed leader about what I decreed to be troublesome conflicts between war-time Seicho-no-Ie rhetoric and post-war time Seicho-no-ie rhetoric, both of which were divine messages.

One other interesting tidbit. The Japanese contingent could be typified as "right wing" while the English contingent would definitely be typified as "left wing" . . . all under the same roof thinking they were all thinking the same things. The interesting "middle men" were the nikeijin who found themselves walking a tightrope . . . come to think of it, I suppose they were used to that. For most their entire life consisted of "walking a cultural tightrope."

~ Allen Beebe
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Old 08-22-2011, 12:22 PM   #40
Peter Goldsbury
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Re: O-sensei rules

Quote:
Diana Frese wrote: View Post
Here I am back again, because the mention of Omoto reminds me of a book I had somewhere that was moisture damaged when we had our storage in the basement, but no one seems to have mentioned "the Eagle and the Rising Sun" about the Japanese new religions. Some of you scholars may have heard of it! I think Seicho no Ie may have derived from Omoto. all religions from one Truth, or something like that.

thanks in advance, Daian
Hello Daian,

There are three books with the same title, but I assume you mean R S Ellwood's book, published in 1974. Since the sub- title is: Americans and the New Religions of Japan, and the book does not deal with Omoto or Ueshiba, it was not of immediate relevance to me, a Brit resident in Japan. Is it any good?

Here is the description in Peter B Clarke's Bibliography of Japanese New Religious Movements (1999), p. 259:

"Ellwood examines the impact of five 'new religions' in America: Tenrikyo, Soka Gakkai, Sekai Kyuseikyo, Seicho-no-Ie [which is indeed an offshoot of Omoto] and Perfect Liberty. The cultural exchange between East and West as presented by the development of these movements in America is discussed."

Since the reviews of his other works on Amazon are mixed, I ask again: Is it any good?

Best wishes,

PAG

P A Goldsbury
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Old 08-22-2011, 09:14 PM   #41
Matt Fisher
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Re: O-sensei rules

Quote:
Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
Hello Ethan,

Well, if the translators of the Kisshomaru U and Tohei volumes were the same people (Kazuaki Tanahashi & Roy Maurer Jr), I think they are no longer with us. So, we can only speculate.
Prof. Goldsbury,

Kazuaki Tanahashi is still alive and working in the US, where he has lived since 1977. His website is http://www.brushmind.net/index.html .

Regards,

Matt Fisher
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Old 08-22-2011, 10:46 PM   #42
Diana Frese
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Re: O-sensei rules

Thanks for the background, Peter and Allen. I added the breathing exercises, etc. in reply to what I am beginning to use to get back in training because Allen was so kind to ask.

I did find the book I mentioned very interesting because of reading about O Sensei's study of Omoto, and having met some people who were members of Seicho no Ie, one at NY Aikikai in the late 1960's, one at Hombu in the mid 1970's and a family here in Stamford in the late 1970's. I had heard of Soka Gakkai while auditing some courses on Japan at Columbia in the late 1960's and at the time they were asking people I knew to attend meetings and chant... in English I think it would have been Praise to the Lotus Sutra if I remember correctly. I think they would just walk up to people in the subways, etc. and invite them.

So I had heard of Seicho no Ie and met some people from that group, had heard of Soka Gakkai but never knew any of them personally, and a friend of mine had joined Mahikari, which I don't know if it is still meeting in New York. Unfortunately I haven't heard from her in years, the last time she telephoned she was a member of an international choir which I don't think was connected with Mahikari.

Reading the book, I thought one of the groups might have been the predecessor of Mahikari.

The book was fascinating at the time because I had met people from, or at least heard of three of the groups, actually four, because one of my Japanese friend's mother was a member of Tenrikyo.
So I hope I can find my copy of the book to read it again.

We have to watch our budget but it's good to have a goal and the mirror sword and jewel book will be well worth the effort I'm sure.
It's kind of late now, but I might write again tomorrow or send a PM. I will enjoy re reading all the posts on this thread. Thanks, everyone.

.
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Old 08-22-2011, 11:44 PM   #43
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Re: O-sensei rules

Quote:
Diana Frese wrote: View Post
Just remembered, the breathing Yamada Sensei got from Tamura Sensei, I think .... was different, but he may have done the ones I mentioned also. I really must get to NY!

Drawing the hands up to the face then breathing out pressing the palms down, then something about bringing the hands over the head, then down to the sides breathing out, and something about one hand up and one down with similar breathing...
At the handful of Tamura seminars I've been to, he always began with the Baduanjin, a common Chinese Qigong set. Never saw him explain it, so I mostly remember people going through the motions (myself included), waiting for it to be over with, because it would take him about 20 minutes or so to go through the whole set. In hindsight, he was obviously working with his breath to strengthen his body in an IS manner, not just doing some relaxing breathing exercises.
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Old 08-23-2011, 02:36 PM   #44
Diana Frese
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Re: O-sensei rules

Thanks, Joep! That's fascinating, that Yamada Sensei and Tamura Sensei were teaching something related to Qigong. Personally, I found what I did remember very useful for many reasons. Balance, kokyu ryoku, being centered, keeping shoulders down, etc. etc. "all that good stuff" as we say over here. Here I was, at our little YMCA class passing on a bit of Qigong I learned from one of my first Aikido teachers, and at whose dojo I spent the most time...

Oh, by the way, I mentioned being elderly, yes I am, but Yamada Sensei who is older than I by about six years is not elderly, I was thinking of adding later as a correction to my post. I think it may be because of that Qigong. Seriously, I think he always had all that power I was a bit afraid of taking ukemi. I remember one time my friend Edith and I had gotten bronchitis and bowed a little too long and I think Sensei got annoyed we were chickening out....

Fortunate to be in the dojo before things became more crowded there, but my ukemi was not as good as many people. But as far as the power is concerned, my husband, who has studied Shotokan and kung fu, says I picked up some of the power from Aikido, he notices it when he does any of the little tests ....

But for now, it seems to be one of the ways to get back in training and I am grateful to have been able to pick it up somewhat and work on it years later. It was valuable back at the Y, too.

Thanks again, Joep, I will check out your other posts when I have a chance...
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Old 08-24-2011, 10:09 PM   #45
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Re: O-sensei rules

Hi Diana,

I just wanted to apologize for spelling your name wrong earlier!

All the best,
Allen

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Old 08-25-2011, 01:56 AM   #46
Peter Goldsbury
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Re: O-sensei rules

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Allen Beebe wrote: View Post
Good Morning Peter,

Besides an obviously superior command of (either ) language, it appears as though you happen to have the majority, if not all, (there may be other versions floating around) of the texts being compared.

Thank you!,
Allen
Hello Allen,

I remember quite well the first time I saw these 'rules'. As I told Diana, I had bought Kisshomaru Ueshiba's Aikido from the Harvard Coop bookstore and I saw them listed on p. 174. I was especially struck by No. 3:

Practice at all times with a feeling of pleasurable anticipation.

I remember thinking at the time, Rather like having sex?

John Stevens does not do much better, either:

Always train in a vibrant and joyful manner.

Which sounds like the people in the adverts for toothpaste and detergent: a delight in whiteness that approaches ecstasy.

Kisshomaru adds his own commentary, on pp. 175-176. The commentary on No. 3 reads:

"Thirdly, it is fairly painful to keep on earnestly studying. But if you keep up the discipline of budo without tiring, you will at last reach a really enjoyable stage. Some people misunderstand that it is best to suffer while studying, but real study is pleasant at all times. Concentrating ourselves, not having any painful experiences, we are able to enjoy the practice sessions."

Which suggests to me that Kisshomaru thought of this as something that happens over the long term.

The Japanese text translated above reads:
三、練習は常に愉快に実施するを要す。
This is the same as in the Budo text, except for the use of older Chinese characters and katakana as okurigana:
三、練習ハ常ニ愉快ニ實施スルヲ要ス。

San, renshuu wa tsuneni yukaini jisshi suru wo yo su.

三、San: Three
練習は renshuu wa: as for training
実施する jisshi suru: to effect (it); to make happen
常に tsune ni: always
愉快に yukai ni: in a cheerful manner / in an enjoyable way
要す you su: is the essential point

As for training, to make it happen always in an enjoyable way is the essential point.

What is the force of jisshi suru?
The Koujien definition is: 実際に施行する: jissai ni shikkou suru: to actually put something in operation, like a law, or rule, or examination. The usual way of putting this in English is that the law or rule comes into force, or that the examination is held or takes place.

What is the force of yukai? The old Nihon Kokugo Daijiten defines it in terms of other similar terms for enjoyment.
Tanoshiku kibun wo yoku suru-koto; yorokobashikute kimochi ga yoi koto.
Example: yukaina kishitsu: cheerful disposition.
The Koujien does the the same:
Tanoshiku kokochiyoi koto. Examples: yukaina hito: a cheerful person; yukaini toki wo sugosu: to pass the time pleasantly.

One point here is the great importance attached to tanoshimu and tanoshimi in Japanese culture and children are brought up to do this from a very early age. You can see this most clearly in group activities like travelling and is a matter more of outward appearance rather than inner feeling or disposition.

Best wishes,

PAG

Last edited by Peter Goldsbury : 08-25-2011 at 02:03 AM.

P A Goldsbury
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Old 08-25-2011, 08:18 AM   #47
Allen Beebe
Location: Portland, OR
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Re: O-sensei rules

Hi Peter,

Great to read you as always, and as always you are very thorough. My copy of "Mirror, Sword, & Jewel" arrived yesterday. It looks like it will be an enjoyable read.

Your last sentence:

Quote:
Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
. . . and is a matter more of outward appearance rather than inner feeling or disposition.
Wow! That just about says it all (on a lot of different levels) right there!

Great stuff. Thanks again,
Allen

~ Allen Beebe
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