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Old 08-31-2010, 02:47 PM   #1
ShinZan
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Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

When Ueshiba renamed the techniques from Ikkajo 一ケ条 (or which ever version you prefer) from the older daito-ryu to Ikkyo 一教 I can immediately see the last kanji is teaching but also religion. For instance Bukkyo 仏 for buddhist or Mukkyo for aeithiast or Kirisuto-kyo - キリストの for Christian Number 1 is that kanji right for ikkyo and if so then i pose this bigger question:

I am intersted in community discussion of when the name change occurred (i assume after WWII) and if the kyou religion kanji is significant of Ueshibas shift toward a more esoteric martial art that also reflected more of his religious views vs the older style of aikijitsu that he had been doing during the earlier days. Or is the kanji kyo simply meaning the teachings of Christ or the Teachings of Buddha in my above examples, but the Mukkyo would tend to nullify that position i think since with Mukkyo no principle doesn't necessarily mean anything unless you look at the kyo kanji to really literally mean religion, as in mukkyo = no religion.

I am writing an essay about the religious overtones of Aikido (not a good bad or ugly assessment just a factual paper) and I am curious if the use of the religion kanji to replace the older kanji is significant. Perhaps there is no answer in that case please voice your opinion. I'm also interested in finding other examples of how Ueshiba's religious views made it into aikido and other interesting statements he made about various topics like his famous "Budo and farming are one"

Obviously to understand the statment Budo and farming are one, you would have to embark on a philospohical journey to make that connection.

I have read the forums for a while lurking, and there are no shortages of religion in aikido topics. However I'm supremely interested of higher level aiki peoples opinion on this more specific topic of Ikkyo and Budo and farming are one but also help from higher level students of kanji i would like to hear chime in with their opinions too. These questions are from an Aikido student who studies both Aikikai and Yoshinkan Aikido so it is unique in the fact that there is a blending of old style aikido with newer style aikido.

Thank you very much!

Last edited by ShinZan : 08-31-2010 at 02:59 PM.
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Old 08-31-2010, 03:28 PM   #2
ShinZan
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Almost forgot another example of Kyo 教師 For Kyoshi vs 教士 as it is sometimes incorrectly displayed i think; but the second kanji is irrelevant whether its warrior who teaches or expert/master who teaches the question i have that comes back to is the Kyo Religion kanji significant? If not then why is the title Kyoshi reserved for such high level people why not have a sandan floating around as a kyoshi? So if it implies almost more of a religions title that would seem to support the thesis of my paper. And if all of this means nothing then why is religion and teacher the same kanji in the first place. Not the same sound but the same kanji!
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Old 08-31-2010, 03:48 PM   #3
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Quote:
When Ueshiba renamed the techniques...
Can you provide a reference that it was the founder who did the renaming?

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Old 08-31-2010, 04:35 PM   #4
ShinZan
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Quote:
David Soroko wrote: View Post
Can you provide a reference that it was the founder who did the renaming?
Hmmm intersting. I will try to find a reference but who else would have it been? Shioda and other pre WWII uchi deshi referred to it as Ikkajo and then all the modern aikido styles including Aikikai and others referred to it as Ikkyo. Is it that much of a stretch to assume it was Ueshiba?

I will do more research to find a reference if one explicately exists.

Thanks but even if he didn't rename it then my questions above still stand.
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Old 08-31-2010, 06:13 PM   #5
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

I don't really think there is a connection to the use of 教 in 一教 and in religion (shukkyo) 宗教. 教 simply means to teach, like in the verb (oshieru) 教える. So if the Japanese words you mentioned, they would literally mean:
一教 - First lesson
仏教 - Lessons of Buddha
キリスト教 - Lessons of Christ
And a couple others using 教:
教育(kyouiku) - Education
調教(choukyou) - Training, schooling

So I think it would be a stretch to find any kind of connection between religion and the use of 教 in 一教.

I had to ask my wife about this one, but she has never seen 教士 before. She tells me it's not a word. The use of 教師 is used in academics. So a math or university instructor is a 教師, but a martial arts instructor or a teacher of skilled professions (master & apprentice relationships) is not a 教師.

Remember, many words may have several meanings. Just because a word is used in two contexts, it doesn't mean that there is a connection between those two things. It's almost like saying there is a connection between the sweet sticky yellow substance made by bees, and my wife just because I call them both "honey."
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Old 08-31-2010, 06:30 PM   #6
odudog
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

The ikkajo means first volume. There are several techniques within this first volume with ikkyo being one of them. Ikkyo is the first technique to be learned within the ikkajo. There is no name change between ikkajo and ikkyo.
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Old 08-31-2010, 06:37 PM   #7
akiy
 
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Quote:
Kevin Peters wrote: View Post
I had to ask my wife about this one, but she has never seen 教士 before. She tells me it's not a word.
Actually, 教士 is a valid term, although it may be considered to be jargon within the budo world:

http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%95%99%E5%A3%AB

The first few sentences from the above article states (my quick, loose translation) that the term 教士 is a title awarded by the Dai Nihon Butokukai with its rank just below that of 範士 (hanshi) and just above 錬士 (renshi).

Hope that helps,

-- Jun

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Old 08-31-2010, 06:42 PM   #8
Chris Farnham
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

I don't believe that Morihei Ueshiba ever referred to his techniques as Ikkyo, Nikkyo etc. Correct me if I am wrong, but I believe that Kissomaru Ueshiba implemented most, if not all of the waza names, currently used within Aikikai circles. Also, I believe that the usage Ikkajo differs between Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu and Yoshinkan Aikido. While Ikkajo in Yoshinkan refers to the same technique as Ikkyo in Aikikai. In Daito Ryu, Ikkajo refers to a series of techniques. The specific waza which is analogous to Ikkyo in Aikikai, is referred to as Ippon Dori in Daito Ryu. There is an interview with the current head of Daito Ryu on Aikido Journal that explains this.

I second that 教 does not necessarily refer to religion. While it can refer to religious teachings, I believe that in this case it is just referring to teaching.
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Old 08-31-2010, 08:42 PM   #9
ShinZan
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

教士 is used in the context of kendo,im not surprised that a native Japanese Speaker may not recognize it but what Jun said is what i have seen as well 3 titles that use the shi character (the same as in bushi) as in military warrior or military person (the shi character even looks like a little stick fella lol.

Chris you bring up some interesting points because indeed Ikkajo = Ikkyo in Yoshinkan and that is what sparked my curriosity on the whole issue. I would like more information about the technique names, i think it would be naive to say that Ueshiba didn't have names for the techniques he taught but there seems to be some question about whether Ikkyo was a term implimented by Kissomaru Ueshiba.

Even if it was Kissomaru and not Morihei Ueshiba that changed the name (which im not even entirely convinced it was) I wonder why that happened?

I am aware of the Daito ryu reference to the first group of techniques but in Yoshinkan the jo / kyo is used in all the first 5 techniques for instance ikkajo, nikkajo, sankajo etc which are equal to ikkyo, nikkyo, sankyo in aikikai. So within Yoshinkan there seems to be a 1:1 comparison between these techniques.

I am curious as to why Shioda would call it Ikkajo that and then Aikikai would refer to Ikkyo, and why and how this name change occurred, there must be a reason. It was my own guess that the Kanji 教 might have a correlation to religion. I fully understand that there are multiple meaning for kanji no different that spoken words that sound the same in english like read and red.

With that said the reference i use for kanji is http://www.kanjisite.com/html/start/..._kyouoshi.html

I realize 教師 is often translated as professor and is used in academics but in martial arts it almost always refers to an 8th dan and denotes a very high level teacher. I also have heard on more than one occasion high level aikido teachers when trying to explain the term kyoshi that is can also mean religious leader. Again all this reinforcing my initial hypothesis.

Please keep the information coming everyone!
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Old 08-31-2010, 10:07 PM   #10
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

I second what Chris said. DRAJJ has the Hiden Mokuroku, which includes the sets ikkajo through gokajo. Each set contains many techniques...the most being ikkajo-sankajo have 30 techniques each, yonkajo has 15, and gokajo has 13...total of 118 in hiden mokuroku. Here is a video explaining this concept:

Ichi Go, Ichi Ei!
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Old 09-01-2010, 01:25 AM   #11
sorokod
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Quote:
Richard Richardson wrote: View Post
Is it that much of a stretch to assume it was Ueshiba?
I don't know, which Ueshiba are you thinking off?

Quote:
Thanks but even if he didn't rename it then my questions above still stand.
If ,for example, the change was introduced for bureaucratic or didactic reasons the question is not terribly interesting.

Last edited by sorokod : 09-01-2010 at 01:29 AM.

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Old 09-01-2010, 10:56 AM   #12
ShinZan
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

I appretiate everyones input, I think the conversation is leaning toward too much emphasis on DaitoRyu that jumps to Aikido and there is the very early days of aikido before it was called aikido that is glossed over (aikijitsu/aikibudo). Shioda was a very early student, obviously he called ikkyo, ikkajo and nikyo nikajo all the way to gokyo. Forget the daitoryu volumes. I'm saying if Shioda called ikkyo ikkajo its likely that its because O-Sensei taught it to him that way.

The question then becomes at what point in history did the name change (I have always assumed and heard it was post WWII in 1945ish-52 when O-sensei cosolidated the techniques and the formal term Aikido was first used) However I cannot find any references as to this but it makes sence to me. Are there any aikido practioners out there from the 50s' 60's that trained with Ueshiba, or whos instructor trained with O-Sensei (and can remember back that far lol) that can shed some light on what they called those techniques in those early days of modern aikido?

O-Sensei got involved with Omoto-kyo early on and in the and its completely apparent that this shinto sect had a profound influence on him and influenced his martial arts.

I think to help me forge this paper, I would ask if anyone has any information about when the name change of Ikkajo to Ikkyo occurred and who did it. Like i say it seems likely to me that if Shioda called it Nikajo he learned to call it that from O-Sensei. Also but at some point the aikikai started using the term ikkyo. Was it Doshu Kisshomaru Ueshiba? I dont find this likely. Was it Tohei? Or was it O-Sensei himself? Yoshinkan uses terms like force. Aikikai uses terms like engrgy. It seems to me the timeline of pre WWII to the more religious days of Post WWII may have been when it happend to reflect O-Sensei's shift toward from first control to first teaching. Perhaps the use of the Kanji is a double entendre? Yoshinkan Aikido is very 1-2-3 direct force physics. Aikikai Aikido is more about feeling, and going through the motions with a ton of practice until you can feel the technique working case in point Kokyu Nage being nicknamed the 20 year throw and it being early in the cirriculum of Aikikai and Yoshinkan doesn't introduce timing throws until later in their cirriculum.

I find the nuances of language to be supremely interesting and have often found that even native japanese speakers may not fully understand terms used within martial arts if they are not practioners themselves, I enjoy understanding the kanji for myself vs having someone tell me what they mean especially when dealing with pictograph languages. I figured this would be a great place to ask this type of question with so many learned people reading.

Thanks again

Last edited by ShinZan : 09-01-2010 at 11:01 AM.
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Old 09-01-2010, 12:52 PM   #13
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

It seems more probable to me that the name change was to further distinguish and distance Aikido from it's Daito Ryu heritage. While there may have been philosophical reasons for this, I think the motivations were just as much political and financial, if not more so.

Ueshiba was beholden to Takeda to forward a fee for every student he taught DRAJJ to. At some point, I believe, Ueshiba considered what he was doing different enough not to warrant this payment. He changed the name of his art from Daitro Ryu Aiki Jujustsu to Aiki Budo to Aikido. It makes perfect sense that naming conventions for techniques would also change to reflect this difference.

I don't think looking at the kanji for esoteric meaning in the suffix will produce any credible insights.

FYI - according to Mochizuki the technique was called "robuse" originally and the Yoseikan still refer to it as such. This strikes me as odd, since my undrestanding is Aikido's ikkajo/ikkyo technique is actually "ippondori" within DRAJJ. So I'm not sure why it would have been called "robuse." Here is a quote related to that from the Yoseikan NA website:

Quote:
9. What is the relationship between Yoseikan's robuse and the similar techniques practiced as ikkyo in most other aikido schools?

Mochizuki Minoru Sensei said that when he was studying with Ueshiba Sensei (late 1920's), robuse was the name given to the technique that later became Ikkajo, then Ikkyo after the war. The present ikkyo as taught by most Aikikai (and Aikikai related) teachers is the result of the modifications made by Tohei and Kisshomaru Sensei in order to simplify Aikido and make it available to more people....[edited for length]

Patrick Augé Sensei

Last edited by Rabih Shanshiry : 09-01-2010 at 12:58 PM.
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Old 09-01-2010, 05:15 PM   #14
ShinZan
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

That’s an interesting point about paying dues to Takeda, do you have any references or other insight about that? It sounds plausible but we all know that there are no politics in martial arts because everyone loves each other and budo allows us all to transcend such trivial frivolous squabbles, especially Aikido.

So you are saying by renaming the technique ikkajo to ikkyo or nikkajo to nikkyo it was a way to make it more his and less Takeda's?

I have read the article referring to robuse from Augé but it makes me wonder what Ueshiba himself referred to the techniques as because to my knowledge Shioda didn't use that term and i haven't seen any other references to that term around, senior Yoshinkan people please chime in! Why would one deshi (Mochizuki) from the 30's call it A and another deshi from the 30's (Shioda) would call it B with someone eventualy saying no no no lets call it C.

If it were called robuse during Mochizuki's day that seems significantly different from what daito ryu calls it to serve the purpose of changing the techniques for later on down the road when O-Sensei would want to stop paying dues to Daito ryu. But why go backwards from robuse to ikkajo then back to ikkyo? Also Sokaku Takeda died in 1943 of course budo was banned in japan after WWII and the name ikkajo-ikkyo change must have taken place AFTER that.

Wasn't O-Sensei breaking away from Daito ryu in the 20s anyway with the renaming of his art to aikibudo? With aikido not being used as a term until sometime after 1945 (coincidence that it changed so close to Takeda death?)

Whether he was breaking away in the 20s or not, he still handed out daito ryu scrolls in the 30s, but I would be interested in more references or thoughts to support your theory though.

Thanks

Last edited by ShinZan : 09-01-2010 at 05:18 PM.
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Old 09-01-2010, 06:20 PM   #15
Chris Farnham
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

"i think it would be naive to say that Ueshiba didn't have names for the techniques he taught but there seems to be some question about whether Ikkyo was a term implimented by Kissomaru Ueshiba."

I am not sure whether or not Kissomaru was the originator of the term Ikkyo or whether he heard his father use it, but I do know from direct and indirect accounts of O Sensei's direct students that he was notoriously unsystematic about his approach to teaching and rarely if ever referred to techniques by name. Most of the systemizing of his techniques was done (in Aikikai anyway) by people like Kissomaru and Saito sensei. If you look at the waza names accross Aikido orginizations they vary widely. They may have been referring to techn iques as O sensei transmitted them or they may have originated with the founder of the individual organizaztion ie. Shioda, Tomiki, Mochizuki. If you want some hard historical facts, I would suggest contacting people like Peter Goldsbury, Stanley Pranin, or Ellis Amdur. They have all done a lot of historical and academic research on Aikido.

Gambatte,
Chris
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Old 09-01-2010, 06:52 PM   #16
Demetrio Cereijo
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

In the 1958-1960 Aikido manuals by Abe Tadashi he still classifies the waza under -kajo series. Shihonage is in the Ikkajo, kote-gaeshi is in the Nikkajo, there are koshi-nage both in the Sankajo and in the Yonkajo, aiki-otoshi (the one who resembles Judo's sukui nage) is in the Gokkajo... Worth reading.

He also uses ude osae for ikkyo, kote mawashi for nikkyo, etc, like the shodothugs.

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Old 09-01-2010, 11:01 PM   #17
Dan Rubin
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Quote:
Richard Richardson wrote: View Post
I think to help me forge this paper, I would ask if anyone has any information about when the name change of Ikkajo to Ikkyo occurred and who did it. Like i say it seems likely to me that if Shioda called it Nikajo he learned to call it that from O-Sensei. Also but at some point the aikikai started using the term ikkyo. Was it Doshu Kisshomaru Ueshiba? I dont find this likely.
Here's a thread from a couple of years ago on this same question: http://www.aikiweb.com/forums/showthread.php?t=13842

Read Peter Goldsbury's post #13, in which he explains what kajou means, and also states in passing that it was Kisshomaru Ueshiba who changed the counter to kyou.

I wonder if older students might use the terms kajou and kyou interchangeably just as older martial artists might use jujutsu and yawara interchangeably, tending toward one or the other simply as personal preference.

Last edited by Dan Rubin : 09-01-2010 at 11:07 PM.
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Old 09-02-2010, 10:47 AM   #18
ShinZan
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Yes I had actually read those threads already thanks for the reference though. I will add one more thing to muddy the water a bit.

Our most senior Yoshinkan Instructor and his students have explained the kajo to kyo name change to me in this way:

Ikkajo has more the connotation of first control nikajo second control etc etc. After WWII the mentality of controlling people was very much in opposition to O-Sensei's view of his martial arts and his Aikido. This was the reason for the name change to kyo meaning first teaching. This allowed them to get away from the "controlling" techniques and move to the "teaching" or "principle" as its sometimes also translated techniques. So in their explanation it was a philosophical reflection that prompted the name change as much as anything. I just happened to notice the kyo kanji can be synonymous with religion (OBVIOSLY NOT ALLWAYS OR 1:1)

But knowing how esoteric aikido can be especially ki society and some aikikai, it prompted me to wonder if there was any other reason for that change, whether the kanji was a double entendre or perhaps a hidden meaning for some students to get a deeper meaning or no.

There is no mention specifically of who made the change but after doing a ton of reading I have heard all these people sighted as doing the name change:

O-Sensei
2nd Doshu Ueshiba
His Students
Tohei
and random other less likely candidates. One thing is for certain no one seems to have a lock tight answer either way (maybe there is no lock tight answer for who or when...)

I do appretiate everyones opinion and your proverbial 2 cents, especially the blurb on Abe Tadashi, it seemed though he was not very happy with the aikikai and perhaps thats why he shyed away from the new terminologies???? thanks Demetrio.

Last edited by ShinZan : 09-02-2010 at 10:54 AM.
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Old 09-02-2010, 11:24 AM   #19
Demetrio Cereijo
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Quote:
Richard Richardson wrote: View Post
Iit seemed though he (Abe Tadashi) was not very happy with the aikikai and perhaps thats why he shyed away from the new terminologies????
The books were written while he was teaching in France. His concerns about the direction Aikido has taken were expressed after his return to Japan.

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Old 09-02-2010, 11:32 AM   #20
MM
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Quote:
Richard Richardson wrote: View Post
There is no mention specifically of who made the change but after doing a ton of reading I have heard all these people sighted as doing the name change:

O-Sensei
2nd Doshu Ueshiba
His Students
Tohei
and random other less likely candidates. One thing is for certain no one seems to have a lock tight answer either way (maybe there is no lock tight answer for who or when...)
If I had to put weight upon any one person's words in regards to this, I would definitely do so with Peter Goldsbury. To quote:

Quote:
Peter A Goldsbury wrote: View Post
However, I can see why Kisshomaru Ueshiba decided to change the prewar counters completely. 一教 (ikkyou) etc represented a major break with prewar tradition.
Peter's post goes a long way to indicate that Kisshomaru changed the names. But, I would send him an email or PM and ask if he had more information. I don't know if he's still in China, but I'm sure he'll get your message.

Remember, also, at this time (after the war), there was only a few people around. Ueshiba was in Iwama doing his own thing. Kisshomaru was left in charge of things in Tokyo. He had a few people around, including Tohei, but for the most part, aikido wasn't all that popular until later. Can't recall off hand, but probably not until mid to late 1950s.

Remember, too, that at about these timeframes, when Kisshomaru was trying to get Aikido popular, that both Shioda and Tomiki were also teaching "aikido". At least one article I've read directly shows the rivalry between Kisshomaru and Tomiki.

Toss in that Mochizuki is quoted as saying Kisshomaru and Tohei changed the names. It isn't a far stretch to conclude that Kisshomaru changed the names. He was, after all, the person in charge. Even on the off chance that Tohei suggested the change, Kisshomaru was the final decider.

Mark
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Old 09-02-2010, 12:16 PM   #21
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

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Richard Richardson wrote: View Post
Ikkajo has more the connotation of first control nikajo second control etc etc.
I would question this postulation that the original use of ヶ条 (kajou) in aikido meant for that term to carry the meaning of "control." I doubt many (if any) native Japanese speakers (outside of those in aikido) would ever translate ヶ条 as "control." Even within the context of the lineage of aikido, the original use of the term came from the Daito Ryu system of classifying techniques into sets (eg 30 techniques in ikkajou, 30 techniques in nikajou, etc). (An interesting side question might be why ippondori was chosen to be ikkyou out of the 30 Daito Ryu ikkajou techniques, and so on (nikyou, etc)?) Most likely, the use of "control" came about in offering a suitable enough translation of the term (rather than just calling it "first technique"), kind of like how some people "translate" the term "aikido" as "the art of harmony."

Likewise, I think the speculation that 教 in ikkyou (一教) carries religious connotations is linguistically/semantically off. Also, although the term 教師 (kyoushi) is sometimes used to describe those in the religious realms, to link that to religious connotations in 教士 (kyoushi) or 一教 is a stretch for me. As Chris Li has often said, just because the term "martial" comes from "Mars," the name of the Roman god of war, that doesn't mean that everyone practicing martial arts is meant to be a devotee of that god. Also, just because I may call my dad "father" doesn't mean he's a Father (ie pastor).

In my mind, the term kyou (as in ikkyou, nikyou) points to the principles underlying the techniques themselves. Each of these techniques carry a more descriptive name (eg ikkyou = ude osae, nikyou = kote mawashi, sankyou = kote hineri, yonkyou = tekubi osae) as well. Using the kyou names, to me then, points toward the principles underlying each of these techniques as exemplified by the techniques themselves. (Which principles they're pointing towards is left as an exercise to the reader, as I don't trust my experience enough to try to explain them myself. Heh.)

As far as the questions towards whether Kisshomaru Ueshiba changed the names, I'll see if I can scan some of the books he's written in Japanese and report back if I find anything. The secondhand information gathered from those during that time seems to indicate such as Mark points out above.

Back to lurking,

-- Jun

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Old 09-02-2010, 02:32 PM   #22
ShinZan
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Quote:
Jun Akiyama wrote: View Post
As Chris Li has often said, just because the term "martial" comes from "Mars," the name of the Roman god of war, that doesn't mean that everyone practicing martial arts is meant to be a devotee of that god. Also, just because I may call my dad "father" doesn't mean he's a Father (ie pastor).
All valid points Jun I'm very greatful for everyones input on these questions. Can you give me more specific examples of when Kyoshi is used to denote religious figures? I have only heard that as a blanket statement so real world specifics would be helpful to me, also as someone who is fluent in japanese what would you exactly translate the kanji 一ケ条to be 1 counter then what?

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Old 09-02-2010, 04:03 PM   #23
akiy
 
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Re: Question about the renaming of ikkajo to ikkyo (philosphy)

Loose translation from http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%95%99%E5%B8%AB:
Quote:
Within a religious group, a kyoshi is personnel who has a leadership position with the general believers and governs religious activities and doctrines. It can refer as a general designation for clergy, monks, priests, and ministers who are impartial to any specific religion or as a title given in certain religious groups such as Shingon, Konkokyo, Tenrikyo, and Jodo Shinshu.
I might translate 条 as "article" or "clause." Also pertinent may be its meanings along the line of "logic" and "reason," too.

-- Jun

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