Re: The Consequences of Fighting
It's true that we don't know the beginning of the 'story' or the history of the attacker. Maybe there was some argument or altercation first that led to the homeless man chasing Jim, on the other hand maybe the homeless man was crazy or drunk or something and attacked unprovoked. Did he want something? Was he just in a rage? Could the situation have been prevented? I don't know.
But if the suggestion is that the negative consequences of what happened are due to Jim's choosing to 'fight' back, then it seems only logical to point out that NOT fighting back in such a case also has consequences. Every choice has consequences. There's just no consequence-free choice. And the consequences are never entirely predictable. E.g., most people punched in the head don't go into a coma or die, even if it's obviously not good for you. (In your story Jim got hit in the head multiple times himself).
We'll never know what would have happened if he never hit back because it didn't happen, but there's no reason I see to believe the consequences would have been less negative. Seems rather more likely they'd be even more negative.
Maybe Jim would have been beaten to death and the homeless man shot by the police. Who knows.