Re: "Aikido student" in Japanese and more...
Well, 'juku' has a long history. Students were sent there in late Tokugawa and early Meiji to learn 'kangaku' (Chinese classics). And when M Ueshiba opened his dojo in Ayabe I think he called it 'Ueshiba Juku' for a time. I believe the term is used for a number of schools here, such as the Kumano Juku of the late M Hikitsuchi. I think M Suganuma in Kyushu also uses the name for his organization.
In Tokyo M Ueshiba called the dojo the Kobukan. When it was registered with the government it was called the Kobukai in the legal documents, but it was usually known as the Kobukan. The same is true of the Yoshinkan. My own dojo is called exactly this: a dojo. But it is part of shibu (branch organization) and also a renmei (federation of dojos). I have never come across the tern gakko used for a dojo.
The dojo where I teach is located in a small country town about 35 km to the east of Hiroshima. The town, called Saijo, is part of Higashi-Hiroshima City. Visitors are welcome.