The only one we use usualy are small punches using the back of our hands. These punches are mostly directed to to face of the uke to gain the half a second.
I really would like to know though how the other styles use their atemi.
I practice Shojii Nishio Sensei Aikikai style. We use the distracting punches that you describe but as far as I have understood atemi is far more than that. I think atemi is the strike that you potentially could hit uke with, on various places during the technique. What makes it Aikido is to choose not to use this possible punch but instead redirect the power into the technique.
Am I making sense ? I believe this is a good way to think about atemi but I can not do it. Perhaps one day