I think a program of study that adopts a pre-determined strategy such as non-violent de-escalation is doomed for failure when it meets another person who does not share the same belief system. This is usually the case in most situations that involve violence anyway!
self-defense is a much large arena of training than most folks realized. most folks, that i know and some that i don't, tends to think self-defense involved some sort of martial arts training and/or firearm training. so many martial arts schools, that i saw, advertised self-defense training. not one that i saw mentioned anything about the psychological portion of self-defense. to deal with the shock of violent being cary out, to deal with pain and wounds, to deal with all the sight, sound and smell of violent, to deal with the aftermath, to deal with the much after aftermath. just because you are physically prepared, don't mean that you are mentally. i would say that before folks start talking about self-defense, they should spend sometimes at the hospital emergency. there is nothing like the sight, sound and smell of blood and violent to let you know how ready you are.
one of the question that my old karate teacher asked me when i asked him about using what we learned for self-defense: "how far are you willing to go?"
I am still searching for answer. someday i thought i had the answer, other day, not so much.