Budo is not about "studying" a culture. It is about becoming a part of it. I don't think there is any other reason to study martial arts, in fact. If I wanted to get as deeply into the mindset of a Roman Senator as I could, you bet I would wear that toga around and I wouldn't give a fig whether people thought it was odd.
There are non-cultural systems which are purely self-defense oriented, purely combat oriented, purely competition oriented, purely health-oriented, purely delusional, and any combination you can imagine, which would better suit.
I think that there are much better ways to become a part of Japanese culture than just about any Aikido dojo I've ever seen in the United States. In my experience most people who try that come away with a somewhat delusional view of Japan and Japanese culture.
And what about Japanese people in Japan, are they still trying to become part of a Japanese culture?
If you're talking about "traditional" Japanese culture, then how did that work for Morihei Ueshiba, was he also trying to become part of some culture? If he wasn't - than what was he trying to do? Shouldn't that be where we're trying to go?