Robots aren't artificial intelligence, they don't get "taught", really. They're designed to perform a function. I don't know if you could design a robot to do aikido in any meaningful sense. Aikido is a human thing that expresses itself within the human form. Robots don't have the constraint of that form.
So called 'expert systems' can actually learn
. See google cars for an example. Your basic junk mail or spam filter uses the same methods to 'evolve' it's definitions of junk/spam to replicate a type of adaptation. If one believe robots can't learn then they need to investigate a bit more.
The only real limitation is raw computing power ... that can easily be located remotely and accesses over a wireless connetion. This is a primary driver of parallel computing (besides basic numerical simulation of nuclear explosions and weather modelling).