To keep a force from being applied to you it's necessary to deny it a "resting" place within your body. So if someone is applying a push to your shoulder trying to stop the push at your shoulder
While it might seem like this is possible, it's not. The shoulder isn't floating is space. The ground, through the body, is holding the shoulder up.
so no matter what, when force comes in, if it's not knocking the person over, it's making some kind of 'ground path'. Now, how efficient that 'ground path' is is another story. In an efficient model (one where we stand the best chance of resisting the incoming force), that path should be as simple as possible.
will provide your partner with a point of application, a resting place, for the applied force. You need to let the force of the push flow through the shoulder and either ground it, redirect it, disperse it or cycle it around and return it to your partner. Alignment grounds, perpendicular forces redirect, angles disperse and capacitance cycles.
The same four principles are applicable whether you are stationary or in motion.
So, because the shoulder is connected to the ground, via the body, always, there is a 'grounding' that happens when you are resisting incoming force.
Redirecting or dispersing is another kind of thing, more in 'Area 2'.
There is a really tricky point here that I believe you're outlining. The shape of the body receiving force is important. It determines how much force can act on the body.
For example: you have a surface that is angled to the incoming force, and you have a surface that is flat to the incoming force. The angled surface will receive less force because force not as fully contact the body.
This is a tricky issue when we are talking about alignment. Once the force has entered the body, we are talking about 'Area 1'. Before the force enters the body we are talking about 'Area 2'.
I would like to talk about both areas, but we must keep them clear.
I'm not sure what you mean by "cycling".