I agree with you Jim that combat is conflict, sorry if I was not clear in my original post. However whenever I think of conflict (in a civilian context) I think of a hostile situation that can be resolved in a number of ways some of which are combative but not all of them. To my mind sports like boxing and MMA deal with combat because they are duals to see who is the better fighter. The UFC even has fight of the night, submission of the night and KO of the night bonuses to encourage fighters to be as aggressive and combative as possible. Fighters become 'fan favourites' based on how exciting and aggressive their fighting style is. Aikido/AJJ on the other hand place no value in fighting for sport and so seem to eschew combat other than when absolutely necessary in self-defence; yet even then I interpret it as conflict resolution not combat. The aim is not to 'win' as in a dual or contest but rather to subdue, defeat and even protect - firstly yourself and even your attacker.