Re: Transmission, Inheritance, Emulation 20
As always, a very detailed and researched article (but I really like TIE 21! Please more to come.)
History, historians, and interested parties are always revising past events with new knowledge (like the release of the Ultra decoding program of WW II that was kept secret for 29 years), new interpretations, and a chance to see the results of actions taken (will today's actions in the Middle East result in peace? Not. No matter who did or does what.)
Regarding your bringing in different views regarding the American Revolutionary War, it was very interesting but left out several points underlying the ‘revolt' which has similarities to Japan and Ueshiba's Aikido.
On England, there are two areas that I think tend to be left out of the reason for the American uprising -- crony mercantilism and slavery.
Edward Reidell put it neatly with the quote regarding England's business model as setting up "monopolistic trade rights for certain parts of the world to individual companies" such as the British East Indian Company, the North West Company, and others. This crony mercantilism resolved around the new products (spice, sugar, fur, tea, etc.) from the New and Ancient world flowing at unbelievable profit margins back to England.
Combined with difficulties in banking and representation in the Colonies, inhabitants of America had to do currency exchanges thru London with the resulting delay and ‘finance fees' eating up profits in both areas. This is one of the reasons so many of the Founders were lawyers and had firsthand knowledge of dealings (pro and con) with the Empire.
On the slavery issue, with the transformation of slavery to a racial issue and indentured servants passing away as a work force (shades of Ben Franklin) slowly occurring, it nevertheless began in England proper.
In 1702, Lord Chief Justice Holt is quoted as saying "as soon as a Negro comes to England he is a free man, he may be a villain in England, but not a slave." Of course, this was legally danced around for many years but the 1772 Somersett's Case was the writing on the wall for all of the agribusinesses in the southern colonies that the British Empire would eventually disband slavery (which it valiantly did after having made much money.) The recent great movie "Amazing Grace" shows the difficulties and victories in the abolitionist campaign.
Of course, the United States was left with the problem, going thru the same political difficulties but unfortunately resulting in war; one needs to remember that the slavery industry in the southern states surpassed the northern manufacturing states in total dollar value as seen by the 1860 census.
With new political thoughts on freedom and government, the money involved in home management rule vs. absentee plundering, southerners scared of losing a valuable and productive workforce, it is no wonder the Colonies defected. While tariffs are bandied about, it must be remembered that taxes were increased in England also to pay for the French & Indian War costs and resulted in near uprisings by the homeland citizens.
Historians, never ones to venture over to Business Administration in college, forget it is money (and gravity) that make the world go round. This same motive with the beginning of the 20th century drove the new player Japan entering the world market stage as they could plainly see the ledger sheet and notice they were extremely raw materials short.
With the shift from crony mercantilism to this new fledged (and seemingly successful) crony fascism sweeping the world hand in hand with colonialism, of course they wanted their part of the pie with Korea, Manchuria, China and a leering eye on Vietnam, Philippines, Burma, and so on. Rubber, oil, foodstuff, and cheap work force were there for the taking and take they did.
The problem wasn't so much in the taking but the way they took (war crimes such that even one of Ueshiba's students was hanged.)
And the players who set this up such as the Black Dragon Society and Ryohei Uchida (and other names and others) as mentioned by Ellis Amdur were instigators and subverters. Ueshiba's Aikibudo and Kano's Judo (there's an important subject that needs to be looked at with his connection to Uchida) fit in to those looking for power, these instructors' arts a kind of a Muscular Shinto (a takeoff on Roosevelt's Muscular Christianity when he was not practicing jujutsu).
Is Japan's self deception singular? Far from it. I remember seeing in Harper's Ferry, sight of John Brown's failed uprising to overcome slavery, a historical marker praising the south's "peculiar institution." It is still there today.
As Ueshiba went from teaching at the Nakano Spy School in the 30's to teaching High School students in the 50's one can guess which side the history was slanted by both his son, students, and a whole country.