As posted on the Underground forum by Nowhereman2200.
Seems to make pretty much sense.
For us Aikidoka remain these questions:
Does this text or some of it apply to "paired kata" - the method most commonly used during Aikido practice?
Does this text or some of it apply to weapons katas in Aikido?
Are we witness to a downfall of ANY Traditional Martial Art which claims highly improve one's self-defence skills?
The Great Kata Debate
From a combat and/or self-defense point of view, the practice of kata, forms or patterns in TMAs prompts two questions:
(i) Do kata contain valuable information?
(ii) Does practicing kata directly improve your combative/self-defense skills?
A karate perspective
Having studied shotokan karate for 14 years, I must say that, as practiced generally, the techniques in the kata have little combative value. Karate kata applications (bunkai/oyo) that I have seen taught by traditional karate masters have almost exclusively been counters to highly stylised karate-style attacks.
I will try and lay out my thinking as follows:
1. The original applications are unknown
IF (and it is a big if) there truly were applications in mind when the katas were initally constructed they are now unknown to the general community. The honest masters out there will, and do, admit this. There is a great industry (books/videos) of people trying to deconstruct the kata - all coming up with different answers.
2. So, if the originals are unknown, why bother with kata techniques at all?
Applications get assigned to kata techniques in one of two ways. Either someone takes the kata move directly and tries to work out what it might be for, or else someone sees a move demonstrated somewhere and says "hey, that's like the move from XXXX". But why bring the kata into the picture at all? Why try to fit square pegs in round holes? Why limit yourself to attacks and counters that only look like a move from a kata. Katas are unnecessarily limiting.
3. The applications, as generally taught, are nonsense
Most of the applications that I see taught are against highly stylised karate-style attacks, and clearly only work in demonstration mode. For example, the first move in bassai-dai involves a standing with your feet and hands together, then lunging forward with a 'reinfored' inside-block. I see this demonstrated against incoming stepping punches and reverse punches. Other kata applications only work when an opponent follows, say, a right kick with right lunge punch. As Vince Morris says, "but how do you know he was going to do that?".
4. The applications are anyway considered unimportant
The largest international shotokan bodies, the SKI and JKA, both do not require demonstrations of applications for 1st degree black belt. The SKI require demonstration for 4th or 5th dan and above - after you have been training for at least 15-20 years. Surely requiring 20 years of study to usefully use a kata application shows it to be the single most inefficient training methodology imaginable? Modern traditional karate (yes, an oxymoron) places 99% of its emphasis on how good the form of the kata is, not the function. Some organisations take this to ludicrous extremes - a 10 degree variation in foot or hand angle is doing it wrong. Have these people ever been in (or even seen) a real fight? My 99% figure comes from the time spent doing kata vs doing applications, and the emphasis in grading.
5. Practicing with an invisible partner is of little value
Anything and everything works on a cooperative partner. Thus if an application 'works' against a prearranged attack it gives no information on its combative value. The 'Aliveness' concept holds devastating implications for the TMA 'prearranged attack' training philosophy. If only practicing with a cooperative partner with prearranged attacks has dubious value, then practicing with none at all has much less. "But even boxers do shadow boxing" I hear you say. My response would be that you have not boxed and do not understand the purpose of shadow boxing.
Point #5 is the most damaging of all. Even IF the techniques were genuinely of value, simply practicing them as a kata will be very unlikely to help you to apply them in a real situation. I have had experience in or seen the 'new applications' developed by people like Patrick McCarthy, Vince Morris etc and while these are an awful lot better, points #1, #2 and #5 still apply.
The original applications, IF they existed and IF they were any good, have been lost. What is taught in their place is unrealistic rubbish that only ever works for prearranged attacks. In any case, the applications are practiced far far less than the solo performance of kata. Finally, there is a great weight of modern evidence that seriously undermines the training philosophy underpinning kata.
If you knew you were going to be attacked in the street in 2 weeks time would you practice kata between now and then?
If you had a ring fight (full contact or semi contact) coming up in 2 weeks would you practice kata between now and then?
If you were designing a combative/self-defense system, would you have kata in it?
Kata is somewhat useful in developing attributes which are useful in fighting (balance, coordination, stamina etc) but I submit that there is no evidence to suggest that kata is the optimum program for developing these attributes and I suspect that it is an inefficient method of doing so. In reality, kata prepares you best for doing more kata.
From a combative/self-defense viewpoint, kata has little benefit and enormous opportunity cost (the cost of not doing something more beneficial).
What I said above applies to karate, TKD, JJJ and kung fu (these are what I have trained in, or have trained with people who do them). Do you disagree? Do other arts not fall into the above traps?
Don't tell me kata/forms/patterns are great for self defense/unarmed combat - tell me why and how.
KATA has been debated for a long time youve got people like Bruce Lee, Steve Morris, who think they are utter rubbish, then you have the likes of Morio Higaonna, Iain Abernethy, who claim that kata contains the essence of karate(or whatever martial art).
my own experience of forms and kata is this, i have trained in a number of martial arts, to me kata and forms have there place if they are practiced in a realistic way, they need to be broken down and practiced as in bunkai.
i have seen alot of bunkai that is absolutely bollocks, i mean no one is going to attack you with a traditional reverse punch, unless he wants his head kicked in. the other thing is you need to step out of the box and vary the techniques, e.g. a boxer might practice jab right cross, jab right cross left hook from a stationary position, when hes in the ring this wont be possible because the target wont be stationary. this is where kumite comes in.
kihon, kata, kumite needs to be practiced in conjunction with each other, just as the boxer might do shadow boxing bagwork and sparring, one is no good without the other.
no boxer has ever become a world champion by practicing shadow boxing or heavy bagwork alone, sparring, conditioning, skipping, footwork, roadwork all come into play,
kata is not training for a tournament its training for the real thing, however just like boxing, training kata without applying the techniques (under control) is useless you also need to be fit if you expect to be able to use such techniques, your weapons need to be conditioned(ie hands, feet, shins, forearms) which is why the makiwara and chishi need to be used on a regular basis. as well as the heavy bag,
if you want to learn more about the above practices i suggest the following book FOUR SHADES OF BLACK the author of this book is gavin mulholland.