Re: Define grappling
I think Aikido SHOULD be considered a form of grappling, based on my definition of grappling.
To me, grappling refers to any art that emphasizes the use of your body, especially the use of your hands, to gain control over your opponent in an attempt to submit or subdue him.
As stated grappling arts are arts such as judo, BJJ, sambo, greco-roman, free-style, catch-as-catch can, Aikido, Aikijiujitsu, DRAJ, and many, many more.
Some arts are more sport/competitive based than others, but most also contain a "self defense" or "combative" elements. Some emphasize them more than others. Some do a better job at training these aspects than others.
Aikido and/or hapkido as a grappling art is sort of a "hybrid", if you will. it works, what I call "mid range" on the spectrum of grappling engagement. Most of that is based on the fact, I believe that it is somewhat associated with dealing with weapons such as katanas and jo,
Other forms of jiujitsu (BJJ, Sambo, Judo) deal with a closer range and typically focus limited use of weapons at that range at the point of kuzushi. The nature of this training allows you to practice at a faster speed with more resistance.
Many arts (most) incorporate at least some forms of grappling, wrist locks, arm bars, or immobilization techniques. TKD, Karate, etc, Kendo, Muay Thai, However they are typically more concerned with the use of objects or striking and are therefore typically categorized as "striking arts" or "weapons based" arts.
Traditionally, (and really warriors today in the Army and Marine Corps), would be schooled at all ranges of combat. you'd find comprehensive systems that would work all ranges of combat.
The U.S. Army and Marine Corps have recently started to return to the roots of Martial Arts training. for many years we thought that spending time of skills that have been assumed to be obsoleted by technology as a ineffective use of time. We have found that not to be true.
however, for most of us, spending the time necessary to be proficient at the full spectrum of armed and unarmed fighting to be a little difficult, therefore, most modern forms of MA training typically will focus on a particular range, weapon, or group of tactics that allow them to train those things that they feel are most important to convey the skills or message they want to get across.