I think training with resistance is an excellent tool in its proper context. It can also be compliant in it's own way in that there's a tacit agreement and understanding between the parties as to the levels of resistance being employed (thus, each "complies" with the agreement
) via rulesets, conduct, sportsmanship, etc.
Yes. One thing many people don't realize is that even competitive training is actually cooperative, since both parties are cooperating by following the agreed-upon rules of competition. This is why I used the word compliant
(I had the first sense in mind) for the level of training where uke follows nage no what nage does.
One other thing that I thought of as a result of some questions asked recently is that, as I see it, the three levels of resistance training are each appropriate for a certain kind of training. Passive resistance (and semi-compliance, which is essentially a sub-level of passive resistance) is designed for kata or fixed-techniqued training where the uke is modeling the energy of a certain attack to allow the nage to learn how to move in response to that attack. Active resistance is designed for fixed-role freestyle practice, what people in aikido usually call jiyu-waza (or oyo-henka, for some). This is because the uke is trying to break the connection, and thus nage must change his movement and thus the technique as necessary to maintain or reestablish it. The final level of countering obviously applies to non-fixed role freestyle training where there is no distinction between uke and nage.