David Findlay wrote:
Erick Mead wrote:
If you attack -- you open this door that you have no means of closing because your energy is committed to a plane (x-y, y-z, or x-z) where the aikidoka is not fighting. Which is what Aikido emphasizes. It is not something one can "guard"
What I meant by "guard" was to try to make sure your body has potential in each direction (I don't feel qualified to say The Six Directions, but that's what I mean).
I get that, but I do not think that one can maintain that potential in all axes when converting potential into actual energy in an attacking plane. I think I can illustrate (see below) by a concrete example how the application of kokyu shifts the weight of uke in attack according to this gyrodynamic interpretation.
The earlier discussion elaborated my thoughts on the use of the joints as virtual rate gyro sensors to define the condition of action, This is an interpretation of the operation of ki musubi as a gyrodynamic sensory tool in determining uke's dynamic state at connection. Kokyu is the active application of gyrodynamic torque conversion to affect the sensed conditions.
I will show below how I see this interpretation operating in the shifting of weight by kokyu principles. I will attempt to distinguish it from the effective principles in the same mode of thought that I see operating in judo.
David Findlay wrote:
By maintaining this potential it seems that you can respond a lot faster and more appropriately, with less time for "thought" (maybe because you're already "thinking" about it). I've recently started to understand a little bit of this, and have tried to put a simple understanding of it into playing sticky hand type stuff. It has improved my defensive sphere immensely. Whether I'm doing it "right" or not I don't know, but it feels like it has good results.
In an attack, four of those six directions (two axes forming a plane) are highly energetic -- converting potential energy into actual translation and rotation. Every limb that is not supporting weigh at impact is capable of converting that basic tai sabaki into a delivered blow along that plane, and if you are capable of loft in a given art -- all four. The rotating juji "sawblade," if you will. It may be oriented in any give plane with respect to the ground, but once established it creates a frame of reference for everything that happens thereafter. That is the weakness of attacking, it loses potential in some of those directions in order to gain it in others, since conservation of momentum must be maintained.
The two directions (forming the axis of the attacking plane about the center) are not energized except in torque. Because this axis is in torque, one cannot directly counter a force in the same plane in which the torque axis lies. Gyroscopic forces will pull the resultant to a plane 90 degrees out. Any restoring moment must be applied in like fashion.
Let me try a concrete example with a specific technique.
Assume shomenuchi ikkyo with the right hand.
The plane of rotation of the attack is in the vertical-fore and aft plane (y,z). Torque for that rotation lies on the transverse (left-right) axis (x). The horiztonal plane cutting uke in half at the hips is (x,y).
If I as nage extend to the attakcing hand, and connect to rotate uke's body in the (x,z) (transverse or cartwheel plane), the resultant is in the (x,y) horizontal plane. The application of a cartwheeling moment on uke's arm or upper torso from nage's left to right converts uke's vertical rotational momentum, and rotates the entire rotational plane of that attack in the horizontal (x,y) plane -- taking the blow to uke's left of his intended line.
Because the resultant acts in the (x,y) plane, it accelerates the attacking right hip (which is rotating ahead of the arm in the horizontal (x,y) plane to generate the moment spring potential for the strike).
This advances the hip too far ahead of the arm and destroys both the power and the maai of the attack. It creates kuzushi. The attack ends up too far forward. The shift left places uke's balance wieghted into shikaku to his left-forward as he sets his foot down for the strike.
Conversely, if uke applies a restoring moment directly counter to the felt rotation in the (x,z) cartwheeling plane that nage imparts, the right hand rule rotates the vertical plane of the descending attack back toward the line, but the torque conversion eats up the rotational moment of the hip, because it is counter in the (x,y) rotation to the right hip's rotation forward. It is also eccentric to the established rotation (acting from the center of the hips, vice the left hip pivot point that is the pivot for the strike) and the eccentricity also causes the left hip to rotate back from where uke had fixed it for the strike.
This destroys the power of the attack and creates kuzushi to the left forward if uke does nothing. If he counters the cartwheel moment before he steps, it creates kuzushi to the right (and the ikkyo beomes a draw cut).
Depending on how far along the strike is at connection (i.e. at or approaching horizontal), you may actually be applying some moment in the (x,y) plane, and thus creating more forward rotation and thus kuzushi further forward in the (y,z) plane. Of course, the attempt to resist that directly with counter moment in the (x,y) plane, converts that energy back into the (y,z) plane but, by the right hand rule, rotating back over the top rearward thus eating up the decending moment in the striking arm, again destroying power in the attack.
All of this occurs without ever directly operating upon either the power plane (hip rotating in (x,y)) or the application plane (arm and shoulder rotating in (y,z)).
Judo, it seems to me in contrast, typically acts in the power plane or in the application plane, directly manipulating moment in the plane to effect a throw (kuzushi, tsukuri and kake) or using a force couple at the point of rotation to steal momentum at the fulcrum of rotation to stall a throw or pin. The resulting throw may seem similar in many respect to that of aikido but it is arrived at by a completely different route. The judoka is acting on the planar force couple that defines the torque axis that the aikidoka is manipulating by gyrodynamic means.
A judoka will tell you a force couple can be shifted to alter its axis/ fulcrum eccentricity to change the effective leverage that exists. It is the physically unavoidable torque axis, regardless of the leverage in the plane, that provides the opening in the attack for aikido technique -- at a place where the attacker is precisely incapable of acting to counter in extension without destroying the very energy devoted to the attack.
This is what kokyu seems to exploit in the gyrodynamics I have been discussing.
The same analysis applies to the motion of each joint of the body.
In applying many techniques, a cascade of rotational phase shifts occurs at each joint in turn, which shift their rotation to pass energy on to the next one in line.
The differential planes of rotation of each joint versus its next adjacent companion can be similarly juxtaposed as the shoulder and hips are counterpoised in ikkyo. This system of phase shifts is actively usd by the body to generate, store and convert power (as with the hips to create potential for the hand strike) and to transfer forces, whether applied or received dynamically instead of statically.
When kokyu is applied with correct ki musubi, like snapping a whip, those successive torsional phase shifts propagate from wrist to hips accelerating or amplifying like a wave approaching the beach until it no longer can contain the stored energy. The wave breaks out of its continuous form and its dynamic structure becomes chaos; the body departs from its static and dynamic equilibrium and collapses.
This is the action by which kokyu shifts uke's weight as I see the dynamic principles operating.
In kotegaeshi, sankyo or nikkyo or some forms of kokyunage it is applied from wrist through elbow, shoulder, spine and hips. In the shomenuchi ikkyo example it was the hips and shoulder. In iriminage, the same is occurring from the head, down the spine to the center. In aiki otoshi the rotation is to the hips directly, in a plane vertically. In sumi otoshi it is from the elbow, etc.
Like snapping a whip you need a feel (ki musubi) for the resonance wave the technique is designed to create.
Now, to Mike this may be equivalent to contradictory jin in three planes -- I'll leave it to him to elaborate how that might be understood -- if it differs in any meaningful way from gyrodynamic torque conversion I have described.
The kokyu application tends reinforce in my mind the conclusions about the kinethetic sensory use of these same dynamics. Since it is easier to see that the principles may be acted upon by kokyu, it is perhaps easier to understand how they may be sensed in ki musubi.