Re: Pain in aikido?
A small amount of pain is necessary to gain insight of the lever, how it functions, what it affects, and to learn the mistakes that can occur while executing it. Even then, it is enough only to reach the point where joints are locked, and the lever starts to work, and _not_ snap the joint in two. For the purpose of learning, some resistance can be applied then. After that, I prefer focusing on the movements that enable lever execution. Simply emphasizing that the lever should take place then is sufficient. Why make the partner suffer needlessly?