Don J. Modesto wrote:
Wow! Great start...abrupt end. Wha' hoppened?
We got an engaging hook and then...a feedback solicitation.
I find myself fascinated by the etymologies and how the Jpn use their language. Mr. Hacker points out something useful that isn't immediately discernable from the terms we use; I was expecting, and certainly wanted, more than this mere introduction.
Well, I am not Mr Hacker, but here are a few supplementary tit-bits I have come across.
All the monolingual dictionaries and the largest bilingual dictionary I have at home here give the primary meaning of Žl•û as four directions and specify these as east, west, south, north (note the unusual order). This is then generalized to include all sides. There are some interesting examples.
1. Kono sanchou kara 20 kiro shihou ga miwataseru.
From the top of the mountain you can see 20 km in every dfirection.
2. Bakuon ga 5 kiro shihou ni watatte kikoeta.
The explosion could be heard 5 km away (i.e., in each direction).
3. Kono eki kara shihou ni senro ga nobite iru.
From this station lines radiate in all directions.
4. Teki ga shihou kara semeyoseru.
The enemy attacks from all directions.
Perhaps this last use is most relevant to the aikido technique. On the other hand, I have been present when the late Saito Morihiro Sensei demonstrated shiho-nage literally in four directions. He stood over the cross-lines where four tatami met and carefully placed his uke directly forwards, directly, backwards, directly to his left and directly to his right. Apart from showing us what the term meant, he explained the importance of control, of placing uke where he wanted and not where uke wanted to go.
In the Budo
volume the Founder uses the term ˜Z•û roppou ( = six directions) to denote the basic kamae stance. This is given in the dictionary, but there are no examples of established Japanese usage.
Similarly with "happou ( = eight directions), though the primary meaning is given here as 'all directions' and there are one or two phrases, such as Happou te wo tsukusu ( = exhaust every possibility: leave no stone unturned) and Happou ni me wo kubaru ( = keep an eye on all quarters).