View Single Post
Old 09-15-2008, 09:05 PM   #12
John Driscoll
Dojo: Aikido Nord du Lac
Location: Covington, Louisiana
Join Date: Nov 2004
Posts: 11
United_States
Offline
Re: Correlation of Aikido and Daito-Ryu Waza

Amir,

In developing the correspondence between the Aikido techniques and those of Daito-ryu, I first identified the characteristics of the Aikido technique.

For example, Shiho Nage of Aikido begins with Tori securing a grip on Uke's wrist and creating kuzushi, by manipulating Uke's arm, creating a sequential locking of Uke's elbow, shoulder, and spine. Uke finds himself fixed in place with his arm extended, back arched and the torso twisted. Tori maintaining kuzushi steps through with the inside foot (foot on the side of Tori's body closest to Uke) for the omote version or pivots to the rear on the inside foot. Once Tori has placed his foot, Tori pivots approximately 180 degrees to the rear, folding Uke's arm back, and cutting down Uke's arm, as if performing a yokomen cut with a sword. The action of Tori causes Uke to fall to the ground, either rotating at shoulder height or driven directly down.

After identifying the characteristics of the Aikido technique, I then examined the techniques of the Hiden Mokuroku to identify any technique conforming to the pattern.

If you review the Hiden Mokuroku, you will find techniques identified as Shiho Nage in the Ikkajo and Sankajo series of the Hiden Mokuroku. You will also observe two techniques in the Hanza Handachi set of the Ikkajo series, referred to respectively as Hanmi Nage and Irimi Nage. There are two additional techniques in the Hiden Mokuroku, both Tachiai, related to the Shiho Nage of Aikido, one is in the Sankajo series, Ippon Katsugi, and the other is in the Yonkajo series, Kasumi Nage. In addition to the Shiho Nage techniques found in the Hiden Mokuroku, there is one each in the Ikkajo Uragata and the Nikajo Uragata.

All of these techniques conform to the general description of the Aikido Shiho Nage. An examination of each of the Daito-ryu techniques reveals the following.

In the Shiho Nage of the Tachiai set of the Ikkajo series, Tori grips Uke's wrist as Uke attempts to grasp Tori's other hand and applies pressure with the gripped wrist locking Uke's hand back and up, while extending Uke's arm. Tori then proceeds as in the Shiho Nage of Aikido, with the exception Uke's arm is maintained in an extension in the Shiho Nage of the Tachiai set of the Ikkajo series.

The Hanmi Nage is a variation of Hanmi Handachi Katate Dori Shiho Nage of Aikido performed by Tori seated in seiza against an Uke who is attempting to grab Tori's hand from a standing position. Essentially, Tori creates kuzushi as in the Shiho Nage of the Ikkajo series and then proceeds to move Uke, who is standing, around him. However, the overall affect is the same as in the primary Aikido Shiho Nage, and I have seen a technique identical to Hanmi Nage taught by a variety of Aikido sensei.

The Irimi Nage is a variation of Hanmi Handachi Ryote Dori Shiho Nage Omote of Aikido performed by Tori seated in seiza against an Uke who is attempting to grab both of Tori's hands from a standing position. Essentially, Tori creates kuzushi as in the Shiho Nage of the Ikkajo series and then proceeds to stand up moving his inside foot forward. After assuming a standing position, Tori proceeds as in the basic Shiho Nage. There is a noticeable difference between Irimi Nage and the Shiho Nage of Tachiai set of the Ikkajo series, in Irimi Nage, Tori folds Uke's arm back in the same manner as the Aikido Shiho Nage, rather than keeping Uke's arm extended.

In the Shiho Nage of the Tachiai set of the Sankajo series, Tori grips Uke's wrist as Uke delivers a shomen uchi to Tori's head. Tori grips the wrist of Uke's striking arm with both hands, creating torque that cause sequential locking of the elbow, shoulder and spine, while maintaining the extension in Uke's arm. Tori then proceeds as in the Shiho Nage of Aikido.

In the Ippon Katsugi of the Tachiai set of the Sankajo series, Tori grips Uke's wrist as Uke attempts to grasp Tori's other hand and applies pressure with the gripped wrist, locking Uke's hand back and up, while extending Uke's arm. Tori raises Uke's arm, then proceeds as in the Shiho Nage of Aikido, with the exception Tori creates a hyperextension of Uke's elbow by locking the joint across Tori's shoulder on the same side as Tori's wrist that is being held by Uke. After the hyperextension of the elbow, Tori proceeds as in the Shiho Nage of the Tachiai set of the Ikkajo series.

In the Kasumi Nage of the Yonkajo series, Tori grips Uke's wrist as Uke delivers a yokomen uchi to Tori's head. Tori uses his hand on the side Uke is attacking to pass Uke's striking arm to Tori's other hand, which grasps the arm at the wrist, while Tori's hand, on the side attacked, grasps Uke's attacking arm near the elbow. Tori uses both hands to create torque, causing a sequential locking of Uke's wrist, elbow, shoulder and spine, while maintaining the extension in Uke's arm. Tori then proceeds as in the Shiho Nage of Aikido.

In the Shiho Nage of the Ikkajo Uragata, Tori grips Uke's wrist as Uke attempts to grasp Tori's left hand with Uke's right hand. Tori grasps Uke's left wrist with Tori's right hand and releases his left hand, grasping the thumb of Uke's right hand with his left hand. Tori uses both hands to create torque to sequentially lock Uke's wrist, elbow, shoulder and spine, while maintaining the extension in Uke's arm. Tori then proceeds as in the Shiho Nage of Aikido.

In the Kote Gaeshi of the Nikajo Uragata, Tori grips Uke's fist with his hand as Uke delivers a mune tsuki. Tori uses his other hand to grasps Uke's attacking arm near the elbow. Tori uses both hands to create torque causing sequential locking of the elbow, shoulder and spine, while maintaining the extension in Uke's arm. Tori then proceeds as in the Shiho Nage of Aikido.

Although each of the Daito-ryu techniques had minor variances, affecting the overall power and flow of the technique, each technique does track with the Aikido Shiho Nage and are contained in the technical body of Aikido, with the exception of the gripping of Uke's thumb by Tori in the Shiho Nage of the Nikajo Uragata. There is a version of Shiho Nage taught in Aikido dojo, which has Tori gripping the base of Uke's thumb. Therefore, I consider each of the listed Daito-ryu techniques as corresponding to the Shiho Nage of Aikido.

What I noted generally -- emphasis on generally -- was as you moved through the levels of technique, Ikkajo through Gokajo, the quality of the technique improved in the sense the higher the level, the less the technique relied on pure physical strength, relying more on timing, positioning, and manipulation of Uke. There appears to be general agreement on this assessment within the Daito-ryu community.

Further, it appears Morihei Ueshiba incorporated in Aikido the version of the Daito-ryu technique, which he believed to be the one generating the most power and versatility of application, with modification, as he deemed appropriate.

I hope the preceding answers your question. Regards, JED.
  Reply With Quote