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Old 09-12-2008, 10:25 AM   #26
John Driscoll
Dojo: Aikido Nord du Lac
Location: Covington, Louisiana
Join Date: Nov 2004
Posts: 11
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Correlation of Aikido and Daito-Ryu Waza

BACKGROUND:

In creating the technical body of Aikido, Morihei Ueshiba adopted the majority of techniques forming the physical basis of his art from Daito-ryu. Ueshiba then changed the techniques to conform to his vision for Aikido, as a martial art and a way of peace. In modifying the Daito-ryu techniques, Ueshiba relied heavily on his philosophical and spiritual beliefs for guidance, as well as his other studies including sword.

Examining the Daito-ryu techniques adopted and adapted by Ueshiba will provide at least two benefits for the Aikido student. First, it will provide a greater appreciation of the brilliance displayed by Ueshiba in creating Aikido, building upon the genius of Sokaku Takeda. Second, the Aikido student will develop a better understanding of the technical origins of the art and the value of the changes made by Ueshiba.

There have been a variety of articles comparing and contrasting in general the techniques of Aikido and Daito-ryu, but I have been unable to find a correlation of the techniques forming the technical body of these arts. This article provides such a correlation.

DEVELOPING A CORRELATION OF AIKIDO AND DAITO-RYU TECHNIQUES:

In beginning the research to develop a correlation of Aikido and Daito-ryu techniques, I decided to use readily available, commercial reference material for the study. For simplicity, Aikido is represented by techniques as taught under traditions affiliated with the Aikikai, with Daito-ryu represented by the lineage of Tokumine Takeda, referred to as Daito-ryu Aikibudo. The selections do not imply any qualitative judgment with respect to the other branches of each art; rather the selections reflect the relative availability of reference material. I have also included a chart correlating Tomiki-ryu atemi waza and Daito-ryu techniques.

The following were used as primary reference material for Aikido techniques.
Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere by Adele Westbrook and Oscar Ratti

AIKIDO by Kisshomaru Ueshiba

Best Aikido, The Fundamentals by Kisshomaru Ueshiba and Moriteru Ueshiba

The Aikido Master Course, Best Aikido 2 by Moriteru Ueshiba.

Takemusu Aikido, Volumes 1 -6, and Takemusu Aikido Special Edition: Commentary on Budo by Morihiro Saito
The following were used as primary reference material for Daito-ryu techniques.
Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu, Hiden Mokuroku Ikkajo by Katsuyuki Kondo

Katsuyuki Kondo Daito-Ryu Aikijujutsu (Selected Techniques from Hiden Mokuroku -- Ikkajo through Gokajo, and Goshin no Te) (DVD)

Katsuyuki Kondo Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu Ikkajo -- Part 1 (DVD)

Katsuyuki Kondo Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu Ikkajo -- Part 2 (DVD)

Daito-Ryu Aikibudo, History and Technique by Antonino Certa

Daito-ryu Aiki Ju-Jutsu Hiden Mokuroku 118 Jo, Volume 1 (Hiden Mokuroku Ikkajo and Hiden Mokuroku Nikajo) (DVD)

Daito-ryu Aiki Ju-Jutsu Hiden Mokuroku 118 Jo, Volume 2 (Hiden Mokuroku Sankajo) (DVD)

Daito-ryu Aiki Ju-Jutsu Hiden Mokuroku 118 Jo, Volume 3 (Hiden Mokuroku Yonkajo and Hiden Mokuroku Gokajo) (DVD)

Daito-ryu Aiki Ju-Jutsu Hiden Mokuroku Ikkajo Uragata Volume 1 (DVD)

Daito-ryu Aiki Ju-Jutsu Hiden Mokuroku Ikkajo Uragata Volume 2 (DVD)

Daito-ryu Aiki Ju-Jutsu Hiden Mokuroku Nikajo Uragata Volume 1 (DVD)

Daito-ryu Aiki Ju-Jutsu Hiden Mokuroku Nikajo Uragata Volume 2 (DVD)
I first compiled a list of all techniques contained in Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere, in order of appearance, and then crosschecked the list against the remaining Aikido reference material. The crosscheck resulted in the addition of several Aikido techniques to the charts, which are not included in Ratti and Westbrook's work.

A similar listing was made of all techniques contained in the Daito-ryu reference material. Emphasis was placed upon identifying the techniques contained in the Daito-ryu Hiden Mokuroku.

After compiling the list of Aikido techniques, I examined the Daito-ryu reference material to identify the techniques that appear related to each of the Aikido techniques. I then collated the results of the reviews.

NOTES ON TECHNIQUES:


I have identified the Daito-ryu techniques of Gyaku Ude Dori, Tate Eri Dori, and Dakijime Dori as corresponding to both Immobilization No. 1 -- Ikkyo and Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo. The correspondence is based upon comments by Antonino Certa, an Aikido 4th Dan and Daito-ryu Shihan, and Morihiro Saito, an Aikido 9th Dan. Antonino Certa identified Ippondori, Gyaku Udedori, and similar techniques in the Ikkajo series of Daito-ryu as being the same as Ikkyo of Aikido.1 Morihiro Saito has noted the difference between Ikkyo Omote and Nikyo Omote, when tori grips the back of uke's hand as in Katate Dori Ikkyo Omote, is the application of Nikyo pressure.2 Similar comments have been made by other Aikido shihan, as oral instruction. Therefore, I have identified Gyaku Ude Dori, Tate Eri Dori, and Dakijime Dori as related to both Aikido techniques.

I have identified the Daito-ryu techniques of Kirikaeshi, Ryo Kata Hineri, Ryo Hiji Gaeshi, and Obi Otsohi of the Ikkajo series and Suso Barai of the Nikajo series as related to Projection No. 2 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage, Sokumen Irimi Nage) based upon the comments of Antonino Certa.3 I have also shown the Daito-ryu Ikkajo series techniques of Kirikaeshi, Ryo Kata Hineri, and Ryo Hiji Gaeshi as related to Gedan Ate of Tomiki-ryu, due to the obvious correspondence to the Tomiki Ryu techniques.

Based upon the comments of Tokumine Takeda, Tenchi Nage of Aikido is identified as being a technique contained in the Aiki Nage series of Daito-ryu.4

I have identified Koshinage of Aikido as related to Koshiguruma, a technique appearing in the Ikkajo, Nikajo and Nikajo Uragata series of Daito-ryu, based upon the statement of Tokumine Takeda.5 For reasons detailed in "Of Oak Leaves, Blind Hogs, and an Acorn, the Origin of O'Sensei's Koshi Nage," I believe Yagyu Shingan-ryu Taijutsu was the source of Ueshiba's Koshinage, not Daito-ryu. I do see Koshiguruma and several other techniques contained in the Daito-ryu Hiden Mokuroku, as well as Judo Koshi Waza, as probable sources of techniques incorporated into Aikido as koshi nage as the art evolved.

Likewise, I have identified Koshinage of Aikido as related to Seoi Nage due to the comments of Antonino Certa.6 I have also identified Daito-ryu Sankajo technique of Ganseki Otoshi related to Koshi Nage of Aikido, because of its technical commonality with Seoi Nage and Koshiguruma of the Nikajo series.

Based upon the comment of Katsuyuki Kondo, I have identified Gokyo of Aikido as derived from an unidentified technique included in the Gokajo series.7 It is interesting to note, Morihei Ueshiba identifies the technique in BUDO as a variant of Dai Ippo, also known as Ikkyo.

The Kataguruma demonstrated on the referenced DVD prepared under the direction of Kondo Sensei appears to be technically closer to Projection 12 in Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere, than the Kataguruma demonstrated on the DVD of Kato Sensei.

The review of the public demonstrations featuring Kondo, included on Katsuyuki Kondo Daito-Ryu Aikijujutsu, revealed techniques identical to Projection No. 3 -- Kaiten Nage, Projection No. 8 -- Kokyu Nage, Projection No. 22 -- Kokyu Nage, and Projection No. 28 -- Aiki Nage, as well as Ushiro Ate from Tomiki Ryu Aikido. I suspect these techniques are from the Aiki Nage series, and have identified them that way.

I have included all arm locks taught in Aikido using pressure to hyperextend the elbow joint under the general heading of Ude Hishigi. The most common version of the elbow joint lock is Ude Hishigi Waki Gatame, also referred to as Rokkyo, Hiji Gime and Hiji Shime.

Although not appearing in either Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere or the books by Kisshomaru Ueshiba and Moriteru Ueshiba, I have included under the Aikido Immobilizations a technique referred to in the Iwama tradition of Aikido as Nanakyo -- Hiji Gatame, as numerous senior Aikido instructors teach the technique as a kokyu nage and as a knife defense. For similar reasons, I have also included Kubi Nage in the charts, as numerous senior Aikido instructors teach the technique as a kokyu nage.

Lastly, I did not list those Daito-ryu Ikkajo Uragata and Nikajo Uragata techniques, which have no substantive difference from the corresponding technique in the Hiden Mokuroku.

CORRELATION OF AIKIDO AND DAITO-RYU TECHNIQUES

How to Read the Correlation:

The first entry is the reference for the technique as it appears in Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere. The second entry is the term used by the Aikikai to identify the technique. Any parenthetical entry provides other terms in common use to describe the technique within the Aikido community.

The indented listing, appearing below the Aikido technique provides the related Daito-ryu techniques, grouped by series (Ikkajo, Nikajo, etc.), within the Hiden Mokuroku. (Note: A number of Aikido techniques do not appear to have a related technique within the Hiden Mokuroku.)

IMMOBILIZATIONS

Immobilization No. 1 -- Ikkyo (Ude Osae, Oshi Taoshi) ≈
Ikkajo: Ippondori, Gyaku Ude Dori, Tate Eri Dori, Dakijime Dori, Nukite Dori
Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo (Kote Mawashi) ≈
Ikkajo: Gyaku Ude Dori, Tate Eri Dori, Dakijime Dori, Nukite Dori
Nikajo: Kote Zume, Shuto Zume, Gyaku Gote, Kamate Zume
Sankajo: Soto Gote, Uchi Ude Gaeshi
Yonkajo: Temakura Zume
Ikkajo Uragata: Tachi Eri Dori
Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo (Kote Hineri) ≈
Nikajo: Konoha Gaeshi, Irimi Zume
Sankajo: Tsuri Otoshi, Maki Zume, Kataha Gaeshi, Waki Zume, Maki Zume Otoshi, Kiriha
Yonkajo: Waki Zume Otoshi
Gokajo: Koban Gaeshi
Immobilization No. 4 -- Yonkyo (Tekubi Osae) ≈
Sankyo: Gassho Dori
Yonkajo: Ura Gote, Uchi Gote
Immobilization No. 5 -- Gokyo (Ude Nobashi) ≈
Gokajo (See the explanation in Notes On Techniques.)
Immobilization No. 6 -- Shiho Nage (Tenkai Kote Gaeshi) ≈
Ikkajo: Shiho Nage (Omote & Ura), Irimi Nage, Hanmi Nage
Sankajo: Shiho Nage (Omote & Ura), Ippon Katsugi
Yonkajo: Kasumi Nage
Ikkajo Uragata: Shiho Nage
Nikajo Uragata: Kote Gaeshi
Immobilization No. 7 -- Kote Gaeshi ≈
Ikkajo: Kote Gaeshi
Nikajo: Kote Gaeshi
Sankajo: Ude Gaeshi, Kobushi Gaeshi
Ikkajo Uragata: Kote Gaeshi
Ude Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame, Hara Gatame) ≈
Nikajo: Hiji Kujiki, Kataha Dori
Sankajo: Shichiri Biki, Kakae Kujiki, Hiji Kujiki, Waki Garami, Waki Kujiki
Yonkajo: Waki Dori Omote, Waki Dori Ura
Gokajo: Makikomi Kujiki, Enma
Ikkajo Uragata: Ippondori
Nanakyo (Hiji Gatame) ≈
Sankajo: Te Makura
PROJECTIONS

Projection No. 1 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage) ≈
Nikajo: Gyaku Dasuki
Ikkajo Uragata: Ryo Kata Hineri
Nikajo Uragata: Gyaku Dasuki
Projection No. 2 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage, Sokumen Irimi Nage) ≈
Ikkajo: Kirikaeshi, Ryo Kata Hineri, Ryo Hiji Gaeshi, Obi Otsohi
Nikajo: Suso Barai
Ikkajo Uragata: Kirikaeshi
Nikajo Uragata: Seoi Nage
Projection No. 3 -- Kaiten-Nage ≈
Aiki Nage*
Projection No. 4 -- Koshi Nage ≈
Ikkajo: Koshiguruma
Nikajo: Koshiguruma, Seoi Nage
Sankajo: Ganseki Otoshi
Nikajo Uragata: Koshiguruma
Projection No. 5 -- Aiki-Otoshi (Sukui Nage) ≈
Nikajo: Sukui Nage
Projection No. 6 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
Ikkajo: Shime Gaeshi
Aiki Nage*
Projection No. 7 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 8 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 9 -- Tenchi-Nage ≈
Aiki Nage*
Projection No. 10 and 11 -- Sumi Otoshi ≈
Ikkajo: Karuma Daoshi, Ura Otoshi
Nikajo: Hiji Kujiki (Idori)
Yonkajo: Ura Otoshi
Ikkajo Uragata: Ura Otoshi
Projection No. 10 Attack No. 5 -- Hiji Ate ≈
Sankajo: Kata Ude Nage
Yonkajo: Irichigai
Nikajo Uragata: Tsuki Taoshi
Projection No. 12 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
Nikajo: Kata Guruma
Yonkajo: Senryu
Projection No. 13 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 14 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
Ikkajo Uragata: Kata Otoshi
Projection No. 15 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 16 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 17 -- Juji-Garami (Juji Nage) ≈
Ikkajo: Karami Nage
Sankajo: Karami Zume
Yonkajo: Daruma Gaeshi
Projection No. 18 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 19 (Kibisu Gaeshi) ≈
Nikajo: Suso Dori
Sankajo: Ashijime
Projection No. 20 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 21 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 22 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
Aiki Nage*
Projection No. 23 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 24 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
Ikkajo: Izori
Yonkajo: Izori
Projection No. 25 -- Kokyu Nage (Omote) ≈
Nikajo: Hiki Otoshi
Projection No. 26 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 27 -- Kokyu Nage ≈
No Identifiable Correlation
Projection No. 28 -- Aiki Nage (Sudori) ≈
Aiki Nage*
Kubi Nage (Men Nage) ≈
Nikajo: Kubi Nage, Kubi Hineri
TOMIKI RYU ATEMI WAZA

Shomen Ate ≈
Ryo Eri Dori Ryu no Agito**
Ai Gamae Ate ≈
Nikajo: Tsuki Taoshi, Hiji Kujiki (Idori)
Gyaku Gamae Ate ≈
Ikkajo: Kirikaeshi, Ryo Kata Hineri, Ryo Hiji Gaeshi
Nikajo: Suso Barai
Ikkajo Uragata: Kirikaeshi
Nikajo Uragata: Seoi Nage
Gedan Ate ≈
Ikkajo: Kirikaeshi, Ryo Kata Hineri, Ryo Hiji Gaeshi
Ushiro Ate ≈
Aiki Nage*
Notes on Correlations:

Aiki Nage* -- Techniques in the Aiki Nage series have no individual identifiers.

Ryo Eri Dori Ryu no Agito** -- The technique is an applied version of Tomiki Ryu Shomen Ate. While I did not see a technique in Daito-ryu Aikibudo corresponding to Shomen Ate, I did locate one, Ryote Eri Dori Ryu no Agito, in The Hiden Roots of Aikido, Aiki Jujutsu Daito Ryu by Shiro Omiya, and have included it in the chart. Omiya studied Daito-ryu under the instruction of Kozui Tsuruyama, who was a student of Takuma Hisa, who studied with both Ueshiba and Takeda.

CORRELATION OF DAITO-RYU AND AIKIDO TECHNIQUES

How to Read the Correlation:

The first entry identifies the of Daito-ryu techniques, grouped by set (Ikkajo, Nikajo, etc.), within the Hiden Mokuroku, and the Ikkajo and Nikajo Uragata. I have not differentiated Idori, Hanza Handachi, and Tachiai utilizing the same term.

The entry to the right of the equal sign identifies the related Aikido technique. The first entry is the reference for the technique as it appears in Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere. The second entry is the term used by the Aikikai to identify the technique. Any parenthetical entry provides other terms in common use to describe the technique.

Also, I have included Daito-ryu techniques not contained in the Hiden Mokuroku that appear related to Aikido techniques.

IKKAJO

Ippondori ≈ Immobilization No. 1 -- Ikkyo

Kuruma Daoshi ≈ Projections No. 10 and 11 -- Sumi Otoshi

Gyaku Ude Dori ≈ Immobilization No. 1 -- Ikkyo, Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

Koshiguruma ≈ Projection No. 4 -- Koshi Nage

Karami Nage ≈ Projection No. 17 -- Juji Garami

Ura Otoshi ≈ Projections No. 10 and 11 -- Sumi Otoshi

Obi Otoshi ≈ Projection No. 2 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage, Sokumen Irimi Nage)

Kirikaeshi ≈ Projection No. 2 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage, Sokumen Irimi Nage)
Gedan Ate
Kote Gaeshi ≈ Immobilization No. 7 -- Kote Gaeshi

Shiho Nage (Omote & Ura) ≈ Immobilization No. 6 -- Shiho Nage

Shime Gaeshi ≈ Projection No. 6 -- Kokyu Nage

Nukite Dori ≈ Immobilization No. 1 -- Ikkyo, Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

Hanmi Nage ≈ Immobilization No. 6 -- Shiho Nage

Izori ≈ Projection No. 24 -- Kokyu Nage

Irimi Nage ≈ Immobilization No. 6 -- Shiho Nage

Tachi Eri Dori ≈ Immobilization No. 1 -- Ikkyo, Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

Ryote Kata Hineri ≈ Projection No. 2 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage, Sokumen Irimi Nage)
Gyaku Gamae Ate
Ryo Hiji Gaeshi ≈ Projection No. 2 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage, Sokumen Irimi Nage)
Gyaku Gamae Ate
Dakijime Dori ≈ Immobilization No. 1 -- Ikkyo, Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

(Note: The Idori versions of Hiji Gaeshi, Dakijime, and Hizajime do not appear to have a comparable Aikido technique. The Hanza Handachi and Ushiro technique Kata Otoshi does not appear to have a comparable Aikido technique. The technique Kata Otoshi appearing in the Hanza Handachi and Ushiro groups appears to be the same as Ippon Seoi Otoshi of Kodokan Judo.)

NIKAJO

Gyaku Dasuki ≈ Projection No. 1 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage)

Hiki Otoshi ≈ Projection No. 25 -- Kokyu Nage (Omote)

Kubi Nage ≈ Kubi Nage (Men Nage)

Susobarai ≈ Projection No. 2 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage, Sokumen Irimi Nage)
Gedan Ate
Seoi Nage ≈ Projection No. 4 -- Koshi Nage

Shuto Zume ≈ Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

Kote Gaeshi ≈ Immobilization No. 7 -- Kote Gaeshi

Kataguruma ≈ Projection No. 12 -- Kokyu Nage

Koshiguruma ≈ Projection No. 4 -- Koshi Nage

Kotezume ≈ Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

Hiji Kujiki (Idori) ≈ Projections No. 10 and 11 -- Sumi Otoshi, Ai Gamae Ate

Konoha Gaeshi ≈ Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo

Kubi Hineri ≈ Kubi Nage (Men Nage)

Kataha Dori ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Kamate Zume ≈ Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

Suso Dori ≈ Projection No. 19(Kibisu Gaeshi)

Hiji Kujiki ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Irimi Zume ≈ Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo

Tsuki Taoshi ≈ Ai Gamae Ate

Sukui Nage ≈ Projection No. 5 -- Aiki Otoshi

Gyaku Gote ≈ Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

(Note: The Tachiai technique Sei Kujiki and the Ushiro technique Kubi Nage do not appear to have a comparable Aikido technique.)

SANKAJO

Tsuri Otoshi ≈ Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo

Soto Gote ≈ Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

Maki Zume ≈ Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo

Waki Zume ≈ Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo

Ganseki Otoshi ≈ Projection No. 4 -- Koshi Nage

Uchi Ude Gaeshi ≈ Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

Shichiri Biki ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Ippon Katsugi ≈ Immobilization No. 6 -- Shiho Nage

Shiho Nage ≈ Immobilization No. 6 -- Shiho Nage

Te Makura ≈ Nanakyo -- Hiji Gatame

Kobushi Gaeshi ≈ Immobilization No. 7 -- Kote Gaeshi

Kakae Kujiki ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Karami Zume ≈ Projection No. 17 -- Juji Garami

Kiriha ≈ Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo

Gasho Dori ≈ Immobilization No. 4 -- Yonkyo (Tekubi Osae)

Hiji Kujiki ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Kataha Gaeshi ≈ Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo

Ashi Jime ≈ Projection No. 19 (Kibisu Gaeshi)

Waki Kujiki ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Maki Zume Otoshi ≈ Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo

Ude Gaeshi ≈ Immobilization No. 7 -- Kote Gaeshi

Wakigarami ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Kata Ude Nage ≈ Projection No. 10 Attack No. 5 -- Hiji Ate

(Note: The Tachiai technique Sei Kujiki and the Ushiro technique Kubi Nage do not appear to have a comparable Aikido technique.)

YONKAJO

Ura Gote ≈ Immobilization No. 4 -- Yonkyo

Uchi Gote ≈ Immobilization No. 4 -- Yonkyo

Temakura Zume ≈ Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

Waki Dori Omote ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Waki Dori Ura ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Irichigai ≈ Projection No. 10 Attack No. 5 -- Hiji Ate

Izori ≈ Projection No. 24 -- Kokyu Nage

Ura Otoshi ≈ Projections No. 10 and 11 -- Sumi Otoshi

Senryu ≈ Projection No. 12 -- Kokyu Nage

Wakizume Otoshi ≈ Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo

Kasumi Nage Immobilization No. 6 -- Shiho Nage

Daruma Gaeshi ≈ Projection No. 17 -- Juji Garami

(Note: The Yonkajo techniques Kakae Kubi, Tatsumaki, and Hadakjime do not appear to have a comparable Aikido technique.)

GOKAJO

Makikomi Kujiki ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Koban Gaeshi ≈ Immobilization No. 3 -- Sankyo

Enma ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

(Note: The Gokajo techniques Kannuki Zume, Shumoku and Taki Otoshi do not appear to have a comparable Aikido technique. Additionally, I could only locate video of six of the thirteen techniques contained in the Gokajo series.)

IKKAJO URAGATA

Ippondori ≈ Ude-Hishigi (Rokkyo, Hiji Shime, Hiji Gime, Waki Gatame)

Kuruma Daoshi ≈ Immobilization No. 7 -- Kote Gaeshi

Ura Otoshi ≈ Projections No. 10 and 11 -- Sumi-Otoshi

Kirikaeshi ≈ Projection No. 2 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage, Sokumen Irimi Nage)
Gyaku Gamae Ate

Kote Gaeshi ≈ Immobilization No. 7 -- Kote Gaeshi

Shiho Nage ≈ Immobilization No. 6 -- Shiho Nage

Tachi Eri Dori ≈ Immobilization No. 2 -- Nikyo

Ryo Kata Hineri ≈ Projection No. 1 -- Irimi Nage

Kata Otoshi Projection No. 14 -- Kokyu Nage

NIKAJO URAGATA

Gyaku Dasuki Projection No. 1 -- Irimi Nage

Seoi Nage ≈ Projection No. 2 -- Irimi Nage (Kokyu Nage, Sokumen Irimi Nage)
Gyaku Gamae Ate

Kote Gaeshi ≈ Immobilization No. 6 -- Shiho Nage

Koshiguruma ≈ Projection No. 4 -- Koshi Nage

Tsuki Taoshi ≈ Projection No. 10 Attack No. 5 -- Hiji Ate

AIKI NAGE ≈
Projection No. 3 -- Kaiten-Nage
Projection No. 6 -- Kokyu Nage
Projection No. 9 -- Tenchi-Nage

Projection No. 22 -- Kokyu Nage
Projection No. 28 -- Aiki Nage (Sudori)
Shomen Ate (Tomiki Ryu)
(Note: Techniques in the Aiki Nage series have no individual identifier.)

I would anticipate the identification of further correspondence between Daito-ryu techniques and the many Kokyu Nage of Aikido, as catalogued in Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere, as additional Daito-ryu material becomes available, specifically the Aiki Nage series.

As I developed the correlations as a research tool to identify comparable techniques of Aikido and of Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu, I would welcome input regarding any omission or error.

A Final Observation

It is interesting to note the correlation reveals 97 of the 118 Hiden Mokuroku techniques, approximately 82%, appear in Aikido as either primary techniques or henkawaza.

NOTES

1. Certa, Antonino. Daito-Ryu Aikibudo, History and Technique. (Milano: Luni Editrice.) 71

2. Morihiro Saito, Takemusu Aikido, Volume 1 (Tokyo: Aiki News, 1996) 100, 131.

3. Certa, Antonino. Daito-Ryu Aikibudo, History and Technique. (Milano: Luni Editrice.) 71

4. Pranin, Stanley A. Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu. Tokyo: Aiki News, 1996. 52

5. Pranin, Stanley A. Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu. Tokyo: Aiki News, 1996. 52

6. Certa, Antonino. Daito-Ryu Aikibudo, History and Technique. (Milano: Luni Editrice.) 71

7. Pranin, Stanley A. Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu. Tokyo: Aiki News, 1996. 157

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Certa, Antonino. Daito-Ryu Aikibudo, History and Technique. Milano: Luni Editrice, 2007.

Daito-ryu Aiki Ju-Jutsu Hiden Mokuroku 118 Jo, Volume 1. DVD. Tokyo: BAB Japan Company, Limited. (Hiden Mokuroku Ikkajo and Hiden Mokuroku Nikajo)

Daito-ryu Aiki Ju-Jutsu Hiden Mokuroku 118 Jo, Volume 2. DVD. Tokyo: BAB Japan Company, Limited. (Hiden Mokuroku Sankajo)

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