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Advanced Aikido Terms 合気道
The definition of aikido
Aikido-: The word "aikido" is made up of three Japanese characters: AI 合(harmony), KI 気(universal energy, or spirit) and DO 道(the way). So the proper definition for aikido is "The way of harmonizing the spirit."
Important people in aikido (Last name and then first, as is traditional in Japan)
Ueshiba Morihei -: The founder of aikido. (called osensei or kaiso).
Ueshiba Kisshomaru -: The son of the founder of aikido
Ueshiba Moriteru -: The grandson of the founder and current Doshu (head of aikido) at Hombu Dojo (head dojo in Japan).
Toyoda Fumio -: A student of Ueshiba Morihei, Founder of Aikido Association of America (AAA).
Sato Andrew -: A student of Toyoda Fumio, Founder of the Aikido World Alliance.
Dojo - A place where people practice aikido. Bowing in the direction of the shomen wall, often known as the kamiza, is required when entering and leaving the dojo and when stepping onto and off of the mat. It is important to treat a dojo as a respected place of learning. Talking and interruptions should be kept to a minimum during class. The head of the dojo (sensei) is called the dojo cho.
Sensei -: Teacher, or the one who has gone before. It is considered proper to address the instructor during practice as "Sensei" rather than by name.
Domo Arigato Gozaimashita -: Japanese for "thank you very much." After training, it is proper to bow and thank the instructor and those with whom you've trained.
Onegai shimasu -:"I welcome you to train with me" or "I make a request." This said whenever we begin practice.
-san -: Used with the last name, san shows respect and is used more commonly in Japan than the first name. Unless you were very good friends, you would call Amanda Crawford "Crawfordsan" instead of Amanda.
Tatte kudasai -: stand up, please.
Suwatte kudasai -: sit, please.
Hajime or hajimete, kudasai -: begin, please.
Yame or yamete, kudasai -: stop, please.
Hidari -: Left hand and foot.
Migi -: Right hand and foot.
Ai hamni -: mutual stance where uke and nage have the same foot forward.
Gyaku hamni -: opposing stance, where if uke presents the right foot, nage presents the left foot.
Jodan -: "upper position."
Chudan -: "middle position."
Gedan -: "lower position."
Hamni Handachi -: Position where nage sits and uke stands.
Suwari waza -: Position where nage and uke are both sitting.
Shikko -: Knee walking, a displacement that is useful when applying hanmi handachi.
Tachi -: Standing position.
Tachi waza -: Standing techniques.
Shi zentai -: Natural position, with feet under shoulders.
Mae -: to the front. Mae ukemi is a front roll.
Ushiro -: behind. Ushiro ukemi is a back roll.
Irimi -: Entering movement.
Aikidoka -: someone who practices aikido.
Aikikai -: "aiki" association. This is the name of our style of aikido.
Aikitaiso -: Basic aikido movements.
Atemi -: A strike directed at uke in order to unbalance or distract.
Bokken or Bokuto -: Wooden sword. Many aikido movements are derived from traditional Japanese fencing.
Budo -: "Martial way."
Dan -: Black belt rank.
Fudo shin -: "immovable mind." A state of mental composure where one is calm and not distracted.
Gi or Keiko Gi or Dogi-: Training costume; must be white.
Hakama -: Divided skirt usually worn by black-belt ranks.
Happo -: 8 directions, as in happo undo.
Hara -: The center of mass in the body, about 2" below the navel.
Hiji -: Elbow.
Jiyu waza -: Free style training.
Jo -: Wooden staff about 4'-5' in length. Many jo movements come from traditional Japanese spear- fighting.
Kamae -: Posture or stance.
Kamiza -: a shrine at the front of the dojo; part of the shomen wall.
Kata -: A form or pattern, such a jo kata I.
Katame waza (also osae waza)-: "Hold down" or pinning technique, such as ikkyo or kotegaeshi. (as opposed to nage waza)
Keiko -: Training.
Ken -: Sword.
Ki -: Energy, the force of one's intention. (Chinese = Chi, even though in Japanese chi means blood)
Kiai -: A shout to help focus one's intention/energy into a single movement.
Kihon -: Fundamental. Kihon waza are the fundamental techniques, such as ikkyo, kokyunage, etc.
Ki Musubi or Ki no musubi-: The act of matching your movements with your partner's in order to avoid direct impact.
Kohai -: a student junior to oneself. It is generally considered rude to call someone a kohai to their face.
Kokyu -: Co-ordination of breath with the movement. Kokyu ho = breathing exercises.
Kokyudosa or kokyuho -: Breath technique. Renzoku kokyudosa = continuous movement kokyuho.
Kubi -: Neck.
Kumijo -: Jo matching exercise (partner practice).
Kumitachi -: Sword matching exercise (partner practice).
Kuzushi -: Taking the uke's balance.
Kyu: Rank below black belt.
Ma ai -: Proper distance/relationship to partner.
Masakatsu Agatsu -: True victory is self mastery, or victory over oneself; one of the founder's (Osensei) main beliefs.
Mokuso -: Meditation done at the beginning and end of practice to clear the mind.
Mu -: None, not. Mu kyu is a student who hasn't ranked yet. Mudansha are students without blackbelts.
Mune -: Chest.
Mushin -: "No mind."
Nage -: The person applying the technique.
Nage waza -: Throwing technique. (as opposed to katame waza)
Obi -: A belt worn by all students.
Omote -: "Towards the front of the opponent."
Osensei -: "Great teacher." Morihei Ueshiba, founder of aikido.
Randori -: Seizing chaos. Freestyle training against multiple attackers. Sometimes synonymous with jiyu waza.
Reigi -: Ettiquette, Part of training is observation and adherence to basic rules of behavior. Attention to reigi indicates one's sincerity, willingness to learn and recognition of rights and interests of others.
Seiza -: Sitting on one's knees.
Sempai -: A student senior to oneself. It is usually considered rude to insist upon or use this term when referring to oneself.
Shihan -: "Teacher of teachers," or "Master teacher." Sato sensei is a shihan.
Shikenshobu -: "Duel with live swords." The attitude in training where one treats each experience on the mat with sincerity, as if it were a life or death situation.
Shodan -: First degree black belt.
Shomen -: Front or top of the head. Front of the dojo.
Soto -: Outside. As opposed to uchi.
Suburi -: Basic weapon practice of strikes and thrusts.
Suki -: An opening or gap where one is vulnerable.
Sutemi -: "To throw away the body." Sacrifice throw.
Tachi tori -: Sword taking. Also called bokken tori.
Taijutsu -: "Body arts" or Body techniques." Unarmed practice.
Tai no henkan -: Basic blending practice involving turning 180 degrees.
Tai sabaki -: Basic body movements.
Tanto -: A dagger.
Te -: Hand.
Tegatana -: "Hand sword." Using the edge of the hand in techniques.
Tekubi -: "Neck of the hand," wrist.
Tenkan -: movement turning the body 180 degrees.
Tori (or sometimes dori) -: Take away or grab.
Tsuki -: Punch or thrust (esp. to the midsection).
Uchi -: Inside, often under the attacker's arm. As opposed to soto.
Uchi -: Strike, as in shomen uchi (strike to the front of the head).
Uchi Deshi -: A live in student. A student who lives in a dojo and devotes himself to both training intensely with the dojo cho, maintaining the dojo and assisting the sensei.
Ude -: Arm.
Uke -: the person who receives the technique of the nage. Ukemi = "receiving with or through the body."
Undo -: practice exercise.
Ura -: Techniques where the nage moves "towards the back or rear of the opponent." Sometimes called "tenkan" techniques.
Ushiro -: Backwards or behind. Ushiro ukemi = back roll or back fall.
Waza -: Techniques.
Yoko -: Side. Yokomen= side of the head.
Yudansha -: Black belt holder of any rank. (as opposed to mudansha)
Zanshin -: "Remaining mind/heart." Showing follow through in a technique, esp. preserving awareness of the uke after the technique has been completed. Awareness of the uke at all times.
Zori -: Sandals worn off the mat to keep the mat clean.
Aikido Terminology: Attacks
Katate dori -: Same side, opposite wrist grab. Nage's left hand grabs uke's right wrist.
Kousa dori, or katate kousa dori - Opposite side, same wrist grab. Nage's left hand grabs uke's left wrist.
Shomenuchi -: Direct overhead strike to the head.
Munetsuki -: Punch to the torso.
Yokomenuchi -: Strike to the side of the head.
Ryotedori -: Two hand grab. Sometimes called ryotemochi.
Katadori -: Shoulder grab.
Ryokatadori -: Two/both shoulder grab.
Kubeshime -: Neck strangle.
Aikido Terminology: Techniques
Ikkyo -: First teaching. Similarly: nikyo (2nd), sankyo (3rd), yonkyo (4th), gokyo (5th).
Iriminage -: Entering throw.
Shihonage -: Four direction throw.
Kotegaeshi -: Wrist throw.
Tenchinage -: Heaven and Earth throw.
Kaitenage -: Rotary throw.
Sumi otoshi -: Corner throw.
Jyuji Nage, or jyuji garame -: "Plus/cross" or "Ten" Throw (the kanji for the number 10 is a plus).
Koshinage -: Hip throw
Japanese is a phonetic language, so all you have to do is sound out each letter you see. Consonants are pronounced the same as in English, for the most part. Vowels are pronounced almost the same as in Spanish:
a=ah (as in also), e=eh (as in pet), i=ee (as in see), o=oh (as in go), u=oo (as in pool)
For example: uke = (ookeh) arigato = (ah ree gah toh) sensei = (sehn seh)
Japanese counting is extremely complex (number words change depending on the nouns they refer to), but the basics are:
1 = ichi (eechee) 2 = ni (nee) 3 = san (sahn) 4 = shi (shee) 5= go (go)
6 = roku (roh koo) 7 = shichi (shee chee) 8 = hachi (hah chee) 9 = kyu (k yoo) 10 = jyu (j yoo)